首页> 外文期刊>Neuropsychologia >Dyslexics are impaired on implicit higher-order sequence learning, but not on implicit spatial context learning.
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Dyslexics are impaired on implicit higher-order sequence learning, but not on implicit spatial context learning.

机译:阅读障碍在隐式高阶序列学习中受损,但在隐式空间上下文学习中则不受影响。

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Developmental dyslexia is characterized by poor reading ability and impairments on a range of tasks including phonological processing and processing of sensory information. Some recent studies have found deficits in implicit sequence learning using the serial reaction time task, but others have not. Other skills, such as global visuo-spatial processing may even be enhanced in dyslexics, although deficits have also been noted. The present study compared dyslexic and non-dyslexic college students on two implicit learning tasks, an alternating serial response time task in which sequential dependencies exist across non-adjacent elements and a spatial context learning task in which the global configuration of a display cues the location of a search target. Previous evidence indicates that these implicit learning tasks are based on different underlying brain systems, fronto-striatal-cerebellar circuits for sequence learning and medial temporal lobe for spatial context learning. Results revealed a double dissociation: dyslexics showed impaired sequence learning, but superior spatial context learning. Consistent with this group difference, there was a significant positive correlation between reading ability (single real and non-word reading) and sequence learning, but a significant negative correlation between these measures and spatial context learning. Tests of explicit knowledge confirmed that learning was implicit for both groups on both tasks. These findings indicate that dyslexic college students are impaired on some kinds of implicit learning, but not on others. The specific nature of their learning deficit is consistent with reports of physiological and anatomical differences for individuals with dyslexia in frontal and cerebellar structures.
机译:发展性阅读障碍的特点是阅读能力差,并且在包括语音处理和感官信息处理在内的一系列任务上存在障碍。最近的一些研究发现使用串行反应时间任务在隐式序列学习中存在缺陷,而其他研究则没有。阅读障碍症甚至可以增强其他技能,例如全局视觉空间处理,尽管也有不足之处。本研究比较了阅读障碍和非阅读障碍的大学生在两个隐式学习任务上的情况:交替的串行响应时间任务(其中非相邻元素之间存在顺序依赖性)和空间上下文学习任务(其中显示器的全局配置提示位置)搜索目标。先前的证据表明,这些隐式学习任务基于不同的基础脑系统,额叶纹状体小脑回路用于序列学习以及内侧颞叶用于空间上下文学习。结果显示了双重解离:阅读障碍显示受损的序列学习,但优越的空间上下文学习。与此群体差异相一致,阅读能力(单实读和非单词阅读)与序列学习之间存在显着的正相关,而这些量度与空间上下文学习之间存在显着的负相关。显性知识的测试证实,在两项任务上两组的学习都是隐含的。这些发现表明,阅读障碍的大学生在某种形式的内隐学习上受到了损害,而在其他隐性学习上却没有受到损害。他们的学习缺陷的特殊性质与关于患有额叶和小脑结构阅读障碍的个体的生理和解剖学差异的报道一致。

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