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Neutralizing misinformation through inoculation: Exposing misleading argumentation techniques reduces their influence

机译:通过接种来消除错误信息:暴露误导性论点技术可减少其影响

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摘要

Misinformation can undermine a well-functioning democracy. For example, public misconceptions about climate change can lead to lowered acceptance of the reality of climate change and lowered support for mitigation policies. This study experimentally explored the impact of misinformation about climate change and tested several pre-emptive interventions designed to reduce the influence of misinformation. We found that false-balance media coverage (giving contrarian views equal voice with climate scientists) lowered perceived consensus overall, although the effect was greater among free-market supporters. Likewise, misinformation that confuses people about the level of scientific agreement regarding anthropogenic global warming (AGW) had a polarizing effect, with free-market supporters reducing their acceptance of AGW and those with low free-market support increasing their acceptance of AGW. However, we found that inoculating messages that (1) explain the flawed argumentation technique used in the misinformation or that (2) highlight the scientific consensus on climate change were effective in neutralizing those adverse effects of misinformation. We recommend that climate communication messages should take into account ways in which scientific content can be distorted, and include pre-emptive inoculation messages.
机译:错误的信息会破坏运作良好的民主制度。例如,公众对气候变化的误解可能导致人们对气候变化现实的接受度降低,并减少了对缓解政策的支持。这项研究通过实验探索了错误信息对气候变化的影响,并测试了旨在减少错误信息影响的几种先发制人的干预措施。我们发现,尽管自由市场支持者的影响更大,但虚假平衡的媒体报道(给予逆势观点与气候科学家平等的声音)降低了整体的共识。同样,使人对有关人为全球变暖(AGW)的科学协议水平感到困惑的错误信息也会产生两极分化的效果,自由市场支持者减少了对AGW的接受,而自由市场支持程度低的人则增加了对AGW的接受。但是,我们发现接种消息(1)解释了错误信息中使用的有缺陷的论点技术,或者(2)突出了关于气候变化的科学共识,可以有效地消除错误信息的不利影响。我们建议气候传播信息应考虑到科学内容可能被扭曲的方式,并应包括先发性接种信息。

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