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The Minds of God(s) and Humans: Differences in Mind Perception in Fiji and North America

机译:上帝和人类的思想:斐济和北美思想观念的差异

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摘要

Previous research suggests that how people conceive of minds depends on the culture in which they live, both in determining how they interact with other human minds and how they infer the unseen minds of gods. We use exploratory factor analysis to compare how people from different societies with distinct models of human minds and different religious traditions perceive the minds of humans and gods. In two North American samples (American adults, N = 186; Canadian students, N = 202), we replicated a previously found two‐factor agency/experience structure for both human and divine minds, but in Fijian samples (Indigenous iTaukei Fijians, N = 77; Fijians of Indian descent, N = 214; total N = 679) we found a three‐factor structure, with the additional containing items related to social relationships. Further, Fijians’ responses revealed a different three‐factor structure for human minds and gods’ minds. We used these factors as dimensions in the conception of minds to predict (a) expectations about human and divine tendencies towards punishment and reward; and (b) conception of gods as more embodied (an extension of experience) or more able to know people's thoughts (an extension of agency). We found variation in how these factors predict conceptions of agents across groups, indicating further theory is needed to explain how culturally generated concepts of mind lead to other sorts of social inferences. We conclude that mind perception is shaped by culturally defined social expectations and recommend further work in different cultural contexts to examine the interplay between culture and social cognition.
机译:先前的研究表明,人们对思想的看法取决于他们所生活的文化,既决定他们如何与其他人的思想互动,又如何推断神未见的思想。我们使用探索性因素分析来比较来自不同社会,具有不同人类思维模式和不同宗教传统的人们如何看待人类和神灵的思想。在两个北美样本中(美国成年人,N = 186;加拿大学生,N = 202),我们复制了先前发现的人与神的两因素代理/经验结构,但在斐济样本中(土著iTaukei斐济,N = 77;印度裔的斐济人,N = 214;总N = 679),我们发现了一个三因素结构,另外包含与社会关系有关的项目。此外,斐济人的回应揭示了人脑和神灵的三要素结构不同。我们将这些因素作为思维概念的维度来预测(a)对人类和神的惩罚和奖赏倾向的期望; (b)将神的概念体现得更多(经验的扩展)或更能了解人们的思想(代理的扩展)。我们发现这些因素如何预测群体间行为者的观念存在差异,这表明需要进一步的理论来解释文化上产生的思维观念如何导致其他类型的社会推论。我们得出结论,心智感知是由文化定义的社会期望所决定的,并建议在不同的文化背景下进行进一步的研究,以检验文化与社会认知之间的相互作用。

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