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A Nonoxidative Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Self-Doped Polyaniline/Carbon Nanotube Composite for Sensitive and Selective Detection of the Neurotransmitter Dopamine: A Review

机译:基于自掺杂聚苯胺/碳纳米管复合材料的非氧化电化学传感器用于神经递质多巴胺的敏感和选择性检测:综述

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摘要

Most of the current techniques for in vivo detection of dopamine exploit the ease of oxidation of this compound. The major problem during the detection is the presence of a high concentration of ascorbic acid that is oxidized at nearly the same potential as dopamine on bare electrodes. Furthermore, the oxidation product of dopamine reacts with ascorbic acid present in samples and regenerates dopamine again, which severely limits the accuracy of the detection. Meanwhile, the product could also form a melanin-like insulating film on the electrode surface, which decreases the sensitivity of the electrode. Various surface modifications on the electrode, new materials for making the electrodes, and new electrochemical techniques have been exploited to solve these problems. Recently we developed a new electrochemical detection method that did not rely on direct oxidation of dopamine on electrodes, which may naturally solve these problems. This approach takes advantage of the high performance of our newly developed poly(anilineboronic acid)/carbon nanotube composite and the excellent permselectivity of the ion-exchange polymer Nafion. The high affinity binding of dopamine to the boronic acid groups of the polymer affects the electrochemical properties of the polyaniline backbone, which act as the basis for the transduction mechanism of this non-oxidative dopamine sensor. The unique reduction capability and high conductivity of single-stranded DNA functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes greatly improved the electrochemical activity of the polymer in a physiologically-relevant buffer, and the large surface area of the carbon nanotubes increased the density of the boronic acid receptors. The high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor show excellent promise toward molecular diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we will focus on the discussion of this novel detection approach, the new interferences in this detection approach, and how to eliminate these interferences toward in vivo and in vitro detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
机译:用于体内多巴胺体内检测的大多数当前技术利用了该化合物氧化的容易性。检测过程中的主要问题是存在高浓度的抗坏血酸,其在与裸电极上的多巴胺几乎相同的电势下被氧化。此外,多巴胺的氧化产物与样品中存在的抗坏血酸反应并再次再生多巴胺,这严重限制了检测的准确性。同时,产物还可能在电极表面上形成黑色素样绝缘膜,这降低了电极的灵敏度。为了解决这些问题,已经开发了电极上的各种表面修饰,用于制造电极的新材料以及新的电化学技术。最近,我们开发了一种新的电化学检测方法,该方法不依赖于电极上多巴胺的直接氧化,可以自然地解决这些问题。这种方法利用了我们新开发的聚苯胺硼酸/碳纳米管复合材料的高性能以及离子交换聚合物Nafion的出色的选择性渗透性。多巴胺与聚合物的硼酸基团的高亲和力结合会影响聚苯胺主链的电化学性质,这是该非氧化性多巴胺传感器的转导机制的基础。单链DNA功能化的单壁碳纳米管的独特还原能力和高电导率极大地提高了聚合物在生理相关缓冲液中的电化学活性,并且碳纳米管的大表面积增加了硼酸受体的密度。 。传感器的高灵敏度和选择性显示出对帕金森氏病分子诊断的极好的希望。在这篇综述中,我们将重点讨论这种新颖的检测方法,这种检测方法中的新干扰以及如何消除对神经递质多巴胺体内和体外检测的干扰。

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