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Spatial Distribution Chemical Fraction and Fuzzy Comprehensive Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from the Honghu Lake China

机译:洪湖表层沉积物中重金属的空间分布化学组成及模糊综合风险评估

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摘要

Spatial concentrations and chemical fractions of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd) in 16 sampling sites from the Honghu Lake were investigated using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and optimized BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) three-stage extraction procedure. Compared with the corresponding probable effect levels (PELs), adverse biological effects of the studied five sediment metals decreased in the sequence of Cr > Cu > Zn > Pb > Cd. Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) values for Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in each sampling site were at un-contamination level, while the values for Cd varied from un-contamination level to moderate contamination level. Spatially, the enrichment degree of Cd in lower part of the South Lake, the west part of the North Lake and the outlet were higher than the other parts of Honghu Lake. For metal chemical fractions, the proportions of the acid-extractable fraction of five metal contents were in the descending order: Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr. Cd had the highest bioaccessibility. Being the above indexes focused always on heavy metals’ total content or chemical fraction in deterministic assessment system, which may confuse decision makers, the fuzzy comprehensive risk assessment method was established based on PEI (Potential ecological risk index), RAC (Risk assessment code) and fuzzy theory. Average comprehensive risks of heavy metals in sediments revealed the following orders: Cd (considerable risk) > Cu (moderate risk) > Zn (low risk) > Pb > Cr. Thus, Cd and Cu were determined as the pollutants of most concern. The central part of South Honghu Lake (S4, S5, S6, S9, S12 and S14), east part of the North Honghu Lake (S1) and outlet of outlet of the Honghu Lake (S10) were recommended as the priority control areas. Specifically, it is necessary to pay more attention to S1, S4, S5, S6, S9 and S16 when decision making for their calculated membership values (probabilities) of adjacent risk levels quite close.
机译:使用原子吸收分光光度计和优化的BCR(欧洲参考局)三阶段萃取程序研究了洪湖16个采样点中重金属(Cr,Cu,Pb,Zn和Cd)的空间浓度和化学成分。与相应的可能效应水平(PELs)相比,所研究的五种沉积物金属的不利生物学效应按Cr> Cu> Zn> Pb> Cd的顺序降低。每个采样点中的Cr,Cu,Pb和Zn的地质累积指数(Igeo)处于未污染水平,而Cd的值则从未污染水平变为中等污染水平。在空间上,南湖下部,北湖西部和出水口的Cd富集度均高于洪湖其他地区。对于金属化学组分,五种金属含量的可酸萃取组分的比例按降序排列:Cd,Cu,Zn,Pb和Cr。镉具有最高的生物可及性。由于上述指标始终集中在确定性评估系统中的重金属总含量或化学成分上,这可能会使决策者感到困惑,因此基于PEI(潜在生态风险指数),RAC(风险评估代码)建立了模糊综合风险评估方法。和模糊理论。沉积物中重金属的平均综合风险显示以下顺序:Cd(相当大的风险)> Cu(中等风险)> Zn(低风险)> Pb> Cr。因此,Cd和Cu被确定为最受关注的污染物。建议将南洪湖的中部(S4,S5,S6,S9,S12和S14),北洪湖的东部(S1)和洪湖的出水口(S10)作为优先控制区。具体而言,当对它们的相邻风险等级的计算的隶属度值(概率)的决策非常接近时,有必要更加注意S1,S4,S5,S6,S9和S16。

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