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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as natural biofertilizers: current role and potential for the horticulture industry

机译:丛枝菌根真菌作为天然生物元体:园艺行业的当前作用和潜力

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Plant roots host a wide range of microorganisms that, together with the quality of soil and climatic conditions, represent the main factors that influence plant health, growth and development. Some microorganisms can facilitate use of soil fertility and optimize plant growth to a point that they are considered natural biofertilizers. In this context, mycorrhizae are mutualistic partnerships between fungi that live in soil and the roots of most terrestrial plants. A key role in plant health is playedby the obligate mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi can bridge the host roots to distant portions of undepleted soil, providing water and mineral nutrients to the plant. In addition, they promote pathogen protection via spatial competition and other more complex mechanisms. This is in exchange for photosynthetic products that are transferred to the fungus. They can symbiotically interact with more than 90% of vascular plant families, including important crops and woody ornamentals. Therefore, AMF are primary biotic soil components that, when missing or impoverished, can lead to a less efficient ecosystem functioning. Most of conventional agricultural practices can exert strong selective pressure on AMF, remodel community structure and reduce species diversity. This is a drawback for agriculture because the loss of AMF diversity can result in fewer functional traits from which the host plant can benefit. Needless to say, AMF have attracted a great deal of interest from the agricultural world over the years. In this context, these fungi have assumed a primary role in the development of a sustainable agriculture, which is based fundamentally on the limitation and partial replacement of chemical fertilizers and pesticides mediatedby the respect of natural microbiological balances. Many studies have investigated the positive effects of AMF inocula on the growth of an array of horticultural crops and model plants. Fewer studies have investigated the effects of AMF inoculation in floricultural species. There is a growing interest in reducing phosphorus inputs using AMF inocula; however the absence of solid inoculation practices and of large-scale trials with cost-benefit analysis regarding AMF application still represents a majorobstacle to the stable introduction of AMF into cultivation protocols. In this paper, we review the literature on AMF application in agriculture focusing specifically on horticultural and ornamental crops. We advocate that applied research will have to focus on classifying a diverse pool of AMF species according to their host and environmental preferences, on defining the best inoculum formulation strategies and application methods suitable for different conditions (e.g., open-field, greenhouse, transplant stage, in vitro propagation stage, urban green, etc.), and on imparting best-management practices to nurserymen, directing them to the solutions that most suit their conditions.
机译:植物根部举办各种微生物,与土壤和气候条件的质量一起代表影响植物健康,生长和发展的主要因素。一些微生物可以促进土壤肥力的使用,并优化植物生长,以至于它们被认为是天然生物元化器的观点。在这种情况下,菌根是生活在土壤中的真菌和大多数陆地植物根系之间的互相伙伴关系。植物健康中的关键作用是普及的互动骨折​​菌根真菌(AMF)。这些真菌可以将主体根部桥接到未征收的土壤的远处部分,为植物提供水和矿物质营养素。此外,它们通过空间竞争和其他更复杂的机制促进病原体保护。这是为了换取转移到真菌的光合产物。它们可以与90%以上的血管植物家庭进行符合符合符合人物的互动,包括重要作物和木质园林。因此,AMF是主要生物土壤成分,当缺失或贫困时,可以导致效率较低的生态系统功能。大多数常规农业实践都可以对AMF发挥强大的选择性压力,改造群落结构和减少物种多样性。这是农业的缺点,因为AMF多样性的损失可能导致寄主植物可以受益的少于功能性状。毋庸置疑,AMF多年来吸引了农业世界的大量兴趣。在这种情况下,这些真菌在开发可持续农业方面发挥着主要作用,该农业基本上基于化学肥料的限制和部分替代,介导的自然微生物学平衡的尊重。许多研究已经研究了AMF Inecula对园艺作物阵列和模型植物的生长的积极影响。更少的研究研究了AMF接种在花卉物种中的影响。使用AMF Inecula还原磷的输入越来越感兴趣;然而,没有固体接种措施和具有关于AMF应用程序成本效益分析的大规模试验仍然是稳定引入AMF转化为培养方案的大小写。在本文中,我们审查了专注于园艺和观赏作物的农业中AMF应用的文献。我们倡导应用研究必须根据其宿主和环境偏好分类,根据其宿主和环境偏好进行分类,以定义适用于不同条件的最佳占状法制剂策略和应用方法(例如,开放式,温室,移植阶段) ,体外传播阶段,城市绿色等),并赋予Nurserymen的最佳管理措施,将它们指导到最适合其条件的解决方案。

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