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Comparative abundance and population structure of sympatric Afrotropical tortoises in six rainforest areas: the differential effects of 'traditional veneration' and of 'subsistence hunting' by local people

机译:六个热带雨林地区同养亚热带乌龟的相对丰度和种群结构:当地人“传统崇拜”和“谋生狩猎”的不同影响

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Hinge-back tortoises are actively hunted by human populations in sub-Saharan Africa, and are currently threatened in wide areas of their ranges. The wide wetlands and moist rainforests of the Niger Delta (southeastern Nigeria, west Africa) house three sympatric species of hinge-back tortoises: Kinixys erosa, K. homeana, and K. belliana nogueyi. These tortoises are subjected to strong hunting pressure for several reasons (mainly domestic consumption), but in a few places in Bayelsa and Rivers States (eastern axis of the Niger Delta), they are traditionally venerated as "holy animals" bringing happiness. These few places may represent ideal laboratories for monitoring the effects of hundreds of years of "traditional conservation" on the wild populations of a tropical reptile. Here, I compare the apparent abundance, sex ratio, body sizes, microhabitats, and seasonal occurrence of free-ranging Kinixys populations inhabiting three of these "traditional sanctuaries" with the same ecological aspects of conspecifics from three neighbouring areas where the tortoises are actively hunted. K. homeana was the most common species at all sites, followed by K. erosa, whereas K. belliana was extremely rare. Adult sex ratio did not depart significantly from equality both in K. erosa and in K. homeana, and was not influenced by locality or by type of "management" (veneration or harvesting). The frequency of juveniles of K. homeana was significantly higher in areas with traditional veneration than in areas of harvesting, but the same pattern was not observed in K. erosa. There was a significant decrease in terms of the number of observed specimens between areas of traditional protection and areas of usual harvesting in all species, and this trend was more obvious in K. homeana than in K. erosa. The ratio "number of observed erosaumber of observed homeana" was not dependent on the presence of traditional veneration. Mean body sizes were not different in harvest areas and in veneration areas in K. homeana, but the same comparisons were not done for K. erosa because sample sizes were too small. Tortoises in veneration areas inhabited a wider range of microhabitats than in harvest areas, where they were found almost only in dense bushes. Specimens of both K. erosa and K. homeana were observed mainly during the wet season, and this excess of observed specimens was significantly affected both by locality and by type of management, i.e., the frequency of observed specimens of both species during the dry season was significantly higher in areas with traditional veneration than in areas with local harvesting. The conservation implications of the ecological patterns observed are discussed. (C) 2003 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [References: 32]
机译:折回陆龟在撒哈拉以南非洲地区被人类积极狩猎,目前在其广泛范围内受到威胁。尼日尔河三角洲(尼日利亚东南部,西非)的广阔湿地和潮湿的雨林内有三种同伴的折回陆龟:Kinixys erosa,K。homeana和K. belliana nogueyi。这些乌龟由于多种原因(主要是国内消费)受到强大的狩猎压力,但是在巴耶尔萨河和河流州(尼日尔三角洲的东轴线)的一些地方,它们传统上被尊为带来幸福的“圣兽”。这几个地方可能是监视数百年“传统保护”对热带爬行动物野生种群影响的理想实验室。在这里,我比较了居住在其中三个“传统庇护所”中的自由放养Kinixys种群的表观丰度,性别比,微生境和季节性发生情况,并积极地寻找了来自三个邻近地区的同种动物的生态特征。 。霍姆纳氏菌是所有地点中最常见的物种,其次是鸢尾K. belliana,极为罕见。成人性别比在K. erosa和K. homeana中均没有显着偏离平等,并且不受地点或“管理”类型(尊敬或收获)的影响。在传统习俗的地区,霍姆氏假丝酵母幼鱼的发生频率明显高于收割地区,但是在鸢尾假丝酵母中未观察到相同的模式。所有物种中,在传统保护区和通常采伐区之间观察到的标本数量均显着减少,并且在霍曼假单胞菌中比在红假单胞菌中这种趋势更为明显。比率“观察到的毛虫数量/观察到的霍马纳虫数量”不取决于传统崇拜的存在。霍姆纳氏菌在收成区和崇敬区的平均体形没有差异,但由于样本量太小,因此对色斑克氏菌没有进行相同的比较。相对于收割地区,几乎只有在茂密的灌木丛中才发现,在尊敬地区的乌龟居住的微型栖息地范围更广。主要在雨季观察到了毛红景天和霍曼假单胞菌的标本,而观测到的这种标本的过剩受到位置和管理类型的显着影响,即在旱季观测到的两种物种的标本的频率具有传统崇拜的地区明显高于具有本地采伐地区的地区。讨论了观察到的生态模式的保护意义。 (C)2003版《科学与医学》 Elsevier SAS。版权所有。 [参考:32]

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