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首页> 外文期刊>Environmental Science & Technology >Comparative Assessments of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene Natural Attenuation by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of a Catabolic Gene, Signature Metabolites, and Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis
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Comparative Assessments of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene Natural Attenuation by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of a Catabolic Gene, Signature Metabolites, and Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis

机译:通过定量分解代谢基因的聚合酶链反应分析,特征代谢物和化合物特异性同位素分析,比较评估苯,甲苯和二甲苯的自然衰减

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摘要

A controlled-release study conducted at Vandenberg Air Force Base involved the injection of anaerobic groundwater amended with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene (BToX; 1-3 mg/L each) in two parallel lanes: lane A injectate contained no ethanol, whereas lane B injectate contained ~500 mg/L ethanol. As reported previously by Mackay and co-workers, ethanol led to slower BToX disappearance in lane B. Here, we report on assessments of BToX natural attenuation by three independent and specific monitoring approaches: signature metabolites diagnostic of anaerobic TX metabolism (benzysuc-cinates), compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis of a catabolic gene involved in anaerobic TX degradation (bssA). In combination, the three monitoring methods provided strong evidence of in situ TX biodegradation in both lanes A and B; however, no single method provided strong evidence for TX biodegradation in both lanes. Benzylsuccinates were detected almost exclusively in lane B, where slower TX degradation and higher residual TX concentrations led to higher metabolite concentrations. In contrast, CSIA provided evidence of TX biodegradation almost exclusively in lane A, as greater degradation rates led to more pronounced isotopic enrichment. qPCR analyses of bssA were more complex. Evidence of increases in bssA copy number (up to 200-fold) after the release started was stronger in lane A, but higher absolute bssA copy number (and bacterial abundance, based on 16S rRNA genes) was observed in lane B, where bacteria genetically capable of anaerobic TX degradation may have been growing primarily on ethanol or its metabolites rather than TX.
机译:在范登堡空军基地进行的控释研究涉及在两条平行泳道中注入厌氧地下水,其中分别添加了苯,甲苯和邻二甲苯(BToX; 1-3 mg / L); B道注射液中含有〜500 mg / L的乙醇。正如Mackay及其同事先前所报道的,乙醇导致B道中BToX的消失较慢。在这里,我们报告了通过三种独立且特定的监测方法对BToX自然衰减的评估:厌氧TX代谢的特征性代谢物诊断(苯并蔗糖酸盐) ,涉及厌氧TX降解(bssA)的分解代谢基因的化合物特异性同位素分析(CSIA)和定量聚合酶链反应(qPCR)分析。结合起来,这三种监测方法为A和B道中TX原位生物降解提供了有力的证据。但是,没有一种方法可以为两条泳道中的TX生物降解提供有力的证据。苄基琥珀酸酯几乎仅在泳道B中检测到,其中TX降解较慢,较高的TX残留浓度导致较高的代谢物浓度。相比之下,CSIA几乎仅在泳道A中提供了TX生物降解的证据,因为更高的降解率导致更明显的同位素富集。 bssA的qPCR分析更为复杂。释放开始后,在泳道A中bssA拷贝数增加的证据(多达200倍)增加,但在泳道B中观察到了更高的绝对bssA拷贝数(以及基于16S rRNA基因的细菌丰度)。能够无氧降解TX的能力可能主要是在乙醇或其代谢物上生长,而不是TX。

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