首页> 外文期刊>Frontiers in Microbiology >Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi as Natural Biofertilizers: Let's Benefit from Past Successes
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Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi as Natural Biofertilizers: Let's Benefit from Past Successes

机译:丛枝菌根真菌作为天然生物肥料:让我们从过去的成功中受益

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Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) constitute a group of root obligate biotrophs that exchange mutual benefits with about 80% of plants. They are considered natural biofertilizers, since they provide the host with water, nutrients, and pathogen protection, in exchange for photosynthetic products. Thus, AMF are primary biotic soil components which, when missing or impoverished, can lead to a less efficient ecosystem functioning. The process of re-establishing the natural level of AMF richness can represent a valid alternative to conventional fertilization practices, with a view to sustainable agriculture. The main strategy that can be adopted to achieve this goal is the direct re-introduction of AMF propagules (inoculum) into a target soil. Originally, AMF were described to generally lack host- and niche-specificity, and therefore suggested as agriculturally suitable for a wide range of plants and environmental conditions. Unfortunately, the assumptions that have been made and the results that have been obtained so far are often worlds apart. The problem is that success is unpredictable since different plant species vary their response to the same AMF species mix. Many factors can affect the success of inoculation and AMF persistence in soil, including species compatibility with the target environment, the degree of spatial competition with other soil organisms in the target niche and the timing of inoculation. Thus, it is preferable to take these factors into account when “tuning” an inoculum to a target environment in order to avoid failure of the inoculation process. Genomics and transcriptomics have led to a giant step forward in the research field of AMF, with consequent major advances in the current knowledge on the processes involved in their interaction with the host-plant and other soil organisms. The history of AMF applications in controlled and open-field conditions is now long. A review of biofertilization experiments, based on the use of AMF, has here been proposed, focusing on a few important factors that could increase the odds or jeopardize the success of the inoculation process.
机译:丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)构成了一组根系专养生物,与约80%的植物互惠互利。它们被认为是天然生物肥料,因为它们为宿主提供水,养分和病原体保护,以换取光合产物。因此,AMF是主要的生物土壤成分,如果缺少或贫瘠,可能导致生态系统功能失效。重新建立AMF丰富度的自然水平的过程可以代表传统施肥方法的有效替代,以实现可持续农业。可以采用的实现这一目标的主要策略是将AMF繁殖体(接种物)直接重新引入目标土壤中。最初,AMF被描述为通常缺乏宿主和生态位特异性,因此建议在农业上适合各种植物和环境条件。不幸的是,迄今为止所做的假设和迄今获得的结果往往相距甚远。问题在于成功是无法预料的,​​因为不同的植物物种会改变它们对相同AMF物种混合物的反应。许多因素会影响接种的成功和AMF在土壤中的持久性,包括物种与目标环境的相容性,在目标生态位中与其他土壤生物的空间竞争程度以及接种时间。因此,在将接种物“调整”到目标环境时,最好考虑这些因素,以避免接种过程失败。基因组学和转录组学已导致AMF研究领域的一大进步,因此,有关它们与宿主植物和其他土壤生物相互作用的过程的当前知识也有了重大进展。现在,AMF在受控和开放场条件下的应用历史悠久。在此提出了基于AMF的生物施肥实验的综述,重点关注一些重要因素,这些因素可能增加接种几率或危害接种过程的成功。

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