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Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach.

机译:衡量经济学中的能源效率:影子值方法。

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摘要

For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations.Applying the marginal measure, we also contributed to energy efficiency convergence analysis employing the delta-convergence and unconditional & conditional beta-convergence concepts, investigating economic energy efficiency differences across the four US sectors using panel data models. The results show that, in terms of technical and allocative energy efficiency, the energy-intensive sectors, SCG and textile mill products, tend to catch the energy extensive sectors, the Com and furniture & fixtures, being conditional on sector-specific characteristics. Conditional convergence results indicate that technology, capital and energy are crucial factors in determining energy efficiency differences across the US sectors, implying that environmental or energy policies, and technological changes should be industry specific across the US sectors.The main finding is that the marginal value measure conveys information on both technical and allocative energy efficiency and accounts for all costs and benefits of energy consumption including environmental and externality costs.To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement.
机译:几十年来,学术界的学者和政策制定者通常采用一种简单的平均量度即能源强度来研究能源效率。相比之下,我们引入了一种独特的边际度量,称为能量影子值(SV),用于对根据经济理论得出的能效进行建模。本文从概念和经验上证明了能源SV的优势,优于平均方法,该方法可以识别边际技术能源效率并揭示分配式能源效率(能源SV到能源价格)。该研究使用对偶利润函数,说明了如何将能源作为称为准固定方法的准固定因素来提供建模优势,并适合于开发能效的显式模型。我们使用平均值衡量方法来解决谬误和误导性结果,并在国家间和国家间能源效率比较中证明能源SV的优势。通过影响能源SV的因素(资本,技术和环境义务)显示了能源效率动态和能源使用的有效分配确定。应用边际测度,我们还使用了增量收敛和无条件和有条件的Beta来为能效收敛分析做出了贡献-融合概念,使用面板数据模型调查美国四个部门之间的经济能效差异。结果表明,就技术和分配能效而言,能源密集型行业,SCG和纺织厂产品倾向于赶上能源广泛的行业(Com和家具及固定装置),但要取决于特定行业的特征。有条件收敛的结果表明,技术,资本和能源是决定美国各部门能源效率差异的关键因素,这意味着环境或能源政策以及技术变革应针对美国各部门的特定行业。主要发现是边际价值该措施传达了有关技术和分配能效的信息,并说明了能源消耗的所有成本和收益(包括环境和外部成本)。为验证能源SV,我们使用KLEM数据集对从1958年开始的35个美国行业应用了双重限制成本模型到2000年,并从四个部门中选择了一个样本。根据经验结果,预测的能源价格与SV增长之间的楔形表明石材,粘土和玻璃(SCG)和通讯(Com)部门的能源使用分配不当,与Com部门相比,SCG中的证据更多,显示出相对于最佳路径的能源使用,次最佳能源使用会增加成本。结果表明,能源生产率是衡量技术效率的指标,并且没有关于能源使用的经济效率的信息。分解能源SV表明,能源,资本和技术在能源SV增加中起着关键作用,有助于考虑和分析提高能源效率的政策含义。

著录项

  • 作者

    Khademvatani, Asgar.;

  • 作者单位

    University of Calgary (Canada).;

  • 授予单位 University of Calgary (Canada).;
  • 学科 Economics General.Energy.
  • 学位 Ph.D.
  • 年度 2010
  • 页码 203 p.
  • 总页数 203
  • 原文格式 PDF
  • 正文语种 eng
  • 中图分类
  • 关键词

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