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Shi'ite clerical authority and modern politics: Muhammad Kazim Khurasani of Najaf and his support of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1906-1911.

机译:什叶派的文书权威和现代政治:纳杰夫的穆罕默德·卡齐姆·库拉萨尼(Muhammad Kazim Khurasani)及其对1906-1911年伊朗宪法革命的支持。

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The Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1906-1911 was a complex event with diverse ideological orientations. It established Iran's first elected parliament (the Majlis), which included members of various social classes and also succeeded to ratify Iran's first Constitution, which limited the powers of the Qajar monarchy. In that process, Iranians incorporated certain European concepts, such as constitutional rights and responsibilities that clearly challenged the traditional authority of Qajar's absolutism.;The Revolution's success essentially depended on the pro-Constitutionalist Shi`ite clerics while, on the other hand, their anti-Constitutionalist colleagues failed to gain enough public opposition. This was largely due to the leadership role of Muhammad Kazim Khurasani (1839-1911), the highest-ranking ayatullah and his like-minded colleagues who supported the Revolution by reflecting popular will and incorporating their own juristic fundamentals of usulism with modern political arguments. By drawing on a wide range of primary and secondary source material the present dissertation elucidates the role of Khurasani in Iran's Constitutional movement and his impact in synthesizing Shi`ism and Constitutionalism.;Based in Najaf in Ottoman Iraq, Khurasani used his authority of Islamic jurisprudence and his role as a Source of Imitation inside Iran to effectively support the Revolution. Agreeing with mostly non-clerical intellectuals, reformists, and modernists of various social classes Khurasani broke the traditional barriers dividing the clerical establishment with the outside world and argued for Constitutionalism and the rule of law in opposition to arbitrary rule. This did not mean ignoring Islamic law or values, but simply agreeing on a middle ground where they could be incorporated into a new set of laws that would treat all citizens equally in an organized judicial setting.;Khurasani was a significant historical figure in Iran's early twentieth-century struggle to develop representational government. Beyond his own time his presence is further felt within the Shiite seminary education through Kifayat al-Usul, his most renowned book, which is a required text in clerical education. Although Khurasani's understanding of Constitutionalism was not entirely in line with what its non-clerical proponents believed, he viewed the movement as a necessary process by which Iran could maintain its independence and face challenges of modern politics.
机译:1906-1911年的伊朗宪法革命是一个复杂的事件,具有不同的意识形态取向。它建立了伊朗的第一个民选议会(议会),其中包括各个社会阶层的成员,还成功批准了伊朗的第一部宪法,这限制了卡扎尔君主制的权力。在此过程中,伊朗人纳入了某些欧洲概念,例如宪法权利和义务,这些挑战明显地挑战了卡扎尔独裁者的传统权威。革命的成功主要取决于亲宪法主义者的什叶派教士,而另一方面,他们的反对派-立宪主义者的同事未能获得足够的公众反对。这在很大程度上是由于穆罕默德·卡齐姆·胡拉萨尼(1839-1911)的领导作用,最高级别的阿亚图拉和他的志同道合的同事通过反映民众的意愿并将他们自己的法治主义法律基础与现代政治论点相结合来支持革命。本文通过借鉴广泛的主要和次要资料,阐明了库拉萨尼在伊朗宪政运动中的作用及其在综合什叶派和立宪主义中的影响。以及他作为伊朗内部模仿来源有效地支持革命的作用。库拉萨尼与大多数不同阶级的非文书知识分子,改良主义者和现代主义者达成共识,打破了传统的障碍,将文书机构与外界隔离开来,并主张立宪主义和法治制反对任意统治。这并不意味着无视伊斯兰法律或价值观,而只是在一个中间立场上达成共识,可以将它们纳入新的法律体系中,以便在有组织的司法环境中平等对待所有公民。 20世纪为发展代议制政府而进行的斗争。在他自己的时间之外,通过最著名的书《 Kifayat al-Usul》在什叶派神学院的教育中进一步感受到了他的存在,这是文书教育的必修课。尽管库拉萨尼对宪政的理解并不完全符合其非文书支持者的看法,但他认为这一运动是伊朗维持独立和面对现代政治挑战的必要过程。


  • 作者

    Farzaneh, Mateo Mohammad.;

  • 作者单位

    University of California, Santa Barbara.;

  • 授予单位 University of California, Santa Barbara.;
  • 学科 Religion Clergy.;Religion History of.;History Middle Eastern.;Islamic Studies.;Legal Studies.;History Modern.;Political Science General.
  • 学位 Ph.D.
  • 年度 2010
  • 页码 364 p.
  • 总页数 364
  • 原文格式 PDF
  • 正文语种 eng
  • 中图分类
  • 关键词

  • 入库时间 2022-08-17 11:36:56


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