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【2h】Numerical Judgments and Recall by Consumers: Selective Accessibility under Prevention and Promotion Motivations

机译消费者的数字判断和召回:预防和促进动机下的选择性可及性

【摘要】Prior research suggests that people’s numerical estimates are often excessively influenced by an arbitrary anchor given during earlier comparative judgments (“anchoring bias”). In the current research, we suggest that such biases are subject to motivational influences of regulatory focus. Across three studies, we found that compared to a promotion focus, prevention focus leads to greater anchoring bias. It is also found that in responding to the anchoring questions, prevention-focused people generated more thoughts consistent with the anchor and such a difference in proportion of anchor-consistent thoughts mediated the heightened anchoring biases. Finally, even though prevention-focused people relied heavily on the anchors in making their estimates, they also demonstrated a greater “hindsight bias” in that after receiving outcome knowledge (i.e., information on the true value), they recalled their earlier estimates to be more accurate than they actually were. We argue that these greater biases stem from the same underlying process, that is, selective retrieval of information consistent with the initial anchor (“anchoring bias”) or the outcome knowledge (“hindsight bias”) for prevention-focused individuals. Taken together, such differences reflect prevention-focused individuals’ vigilant and focused processing style.

【摘要机译】先前的研究表明,人们的数值估计通常受到早期比较判断(“锚定偏差”)中给出的任意锚的过度影响。在当前的研究中,我们建议这种偏见受监管重点的动机影响。在三项研究中,我们发现与预防重点相比,预防重点导致更大的锚定偏见。还发现,在回答锚定问题时,以预防为主的人们产生了更多与锚定一致的想法,而锚定一致的想法所占比例的这种差异介导了锚定偏见的加剧。最后,即使以预防为重点的人在估计时也非常依赖锚点,但他们也表现出更大的“事后见解偏见”,因为他们在收到结果知识(即有关真实价值的信息)后,便回忆起他们先前的估计是比实际更准确。我们认为,这些更大的偏见源于相同的基本过程,即针对预防对象的个体选择性地检索与初始锚点(“锚定偏见”)或结果知识(“后见偏见”)一致的信息。综上所述,这些差异反映出以预防为主的个人的警惕性和处理重点。

【作者】Zhou, RongrongZhao, Shenghui;

【作者单位】

【年(卷),期】2019(),

【年度】2019

【页码】

【总页数】41

【原文格式】PDF

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【网站名称】香港科技大学图书馆

【栏目名称】所有文件

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