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Utility policy and development since Bretton Woods: The role of Multinationals, governments and International Financial Institutions

机译:自布雷顿森林会议以来的公用事业政策和发展:跨国公司,政府和国际金融机构的作用

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摘要

Utilities have always required more capital investment with longer maturities than most other economic sectors. The fact that they are meant to reach as many users (people, firms and organizations) as possible implies an extended and ramified network is desirable, first on the local and national levels, but today also at the international level. Moreover, the way utilities are set up is regularly unsettled by new technologies and innovations, which make possible a wider scale and scope of application. These two dimensions - network expansion and improvement - demand a massive volume of investment which creates in turn recurrent instability for three core aspects of utilities: ownership, control and finance.
机译:与大多数其他经济部门相比,公用事业一直需要更多的资本投资,且期限更长。它们旨在覆盖尽可能多的用户(人员,公司和组织)的事实表明,首先在本地和国家级别,但今天在国际级别,希望有一个扩展的分支网络。而且,公用事业的设置方式通常不会因新技术和创新而动摇,这使得更广泛的应用范围和范围成为可能。这两个方面-网络扩展和改进-需要大量投资,这反过来又导致公用事业的三个核心方面的反复不稳定:所有权,控制权和财务。

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