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Nigeria’s Contemporary Security Challenges: Herders – Farmers Conflict and Banditry

机译:尼日利亚当代的当代安全挑战:牧民 - 农民冲突和匪徒

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Banditry and the violent conflicts between herders and farmers in Nigeria have become potentially dangerous in recent time resulting in humanitarian emergencies as thousands have been killed and many more uprooted from their homes while both the Federal and State government appears clueless on how best to contain the conflicts. The spread of the conflict to southern states of the country is aggravating the fragile relations among ethnic nationalities and religious groups. President Buhari, a Muslim and Fulani, has been accused of allowing the attacks to continue, and his Vice President, Professor Osibanjo, a Christian, has been faulted for failing to speak out. At the heart of the conflicts are dispute over grazing on farmlands and cattle rustlings; expansion of agriculturist population and cultivated land at the expense, deteriorating environmental condition such as desertification; breakdown in traditional conflict resolution mechanisms of land and water disputes, drug abuse, proliferation of small arms and outright criminality, all of which points to a national security failure. The loss of faith in the national security architecture which assumes the form of creation of Special Security Forces, resort to self-help by state governments and citizens’ groups, anti-grazing laws against ECOWAS protocol that allows unrestricted movement of animals for grazing across the countries in the sub-region and the culture of impunity. This paper examines the fundamental issues surrounding banditry and the Herders – Farmers conflict in Nigeria with a view to highlight its implications for national security in contemporary times. It is argued here that considering the seeming intractability of these conflicts and violence, it appears that the security architecture of the country has been hijacked and the Nigerian state has ceased to be in full control and command of the national security situation especially as the safety of life and property can no longer be guaranteed. The security regime has been hijacked, undermined, and compromised by non-state actors who operate confidently with reckless abandon and little decency and respect for human life.
机译:刚性牧民和牧民与农民之间的暴力冲突在近期导致人道主义紧急情况随着数千人被杀害,而联邦和州政府两者的突然造成了更多地拔起,而联邦和州政府则为如何最好地遏制冲突,这似乎无能为力。冲突与该国南部国家的传播加剧了民族民族和宗教团体之间的脆弱关系。穆斯林和福兰尼总统布哈里总统被指控允许袭击持续袭击,他的副总统奥比丹教授奥斯巴乔教授因未能发言而出错。在冲突的核心上,在农田和牛生物上的放牧是争议的;以费用扩大农业人口和耕地,恶化荒漠化等环境条件;传统冲突解决机制的土地和水纠纷机制的故障,滥用毒品滥用,小武器扩散,彻底的犯罪,所有这些都指出了国家安全失败。在国家安全建筑中丧失信仰,这承担了特殊安全部队的创造形式,通过国家政府和公民团体的自助,防止对西非经共体议定书的反恐法律,允许动物的不受限制的运动来放牧子区域的国家和逍遥法外的文化。本文探讨了尼日利亚围系和牧民的根本问题,庆祝了尼日利亚的牧民冲突,以突出其对当代时代的国家安全的影响。在此辩称,考虑到这些冲突和暴力的似乎难以使,似乎该国的安全建筑被劫持,尼日利亚州已不再完全控制和指挥国家安全局势,特别是作为安全性生命和财产不能再保证。安全制度被劫持,破坏,受到非国家行为者的损害,他们自信地以鲁莽的放弃和小数和尊重人类生活。

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