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A systematic review of how multiple stressors from an extreme event drove ecosystem-wide loss of resilience in an iconic seagrass community

机译:对极端事件中的多种压力如何导致标志性海草群落中整个生态系统弹性丧失的系统评价

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A central question in contemporary ecology is how climate change will alter ecosystem structure and function across scales of space and time. Climate change has been shown to alter ecological patterns from individuals to ecosystems, often with negative implications for ecosystem functions and services. Furthermore, as climate change fuels more frequent and severe extreme climate events (ECEs) like marine heatwaves (MHWs), such acute events become increasingly important drivers of rapid ecosystem change. However, our understanding of ECE impacts is hampered by limited collection of broad scale in situ data where such events occur. In 2011, a MHW known as the Ningaloo Ni?o bathed the west coast of Australia in waters up to 4°C warmer than normal summer temperatures for almost 2 months over 1000s of kilometres of coastline. We revisit published and unpublished data on the effects of the Ningaloo Ni?o in the seagrass ecosystem of Shark Bay, Western Australia (24.6 – 26.6o S), at the transition zone between temperate and tropical seagrasses. Therein we focus on resilience, including resistance to and recovery from disturbance across local, regional and ecosystem-wide spatial scales and over the past 8 yearsThermal effects on temperate seagrass health were severe and exacerbated by simultaneous reduced light conditions associated with sediment inputs from record floods in the south-eastern embayment and from increased detrital loads and sediment destabilisation. Initial extensive defoliation of Amphibolis antarctica, the dominant seagrass, was followed by rhizome death that occurred in 60-80% of the bay’s meadows, equating to decline of over 1000 km2 of meadows. This loss, driven by direct abiotic forcing, has persisted, while indirect biotic effects (e.g. dominant seagrass loss) have allowed colonisation of some areas by small fast-growing tropical species (e.g. Halodule uninervis). Those biotic effects also impacted multiple consumer populations including turtles and dugongs, with implications for species dynamics, food web structure, and ecosystem recovery. We show multiple stressors can combine to evoke extreme ecological responses by pushing ecosystems beyond their tolerance. Finally, both direct abiotic and indirect biotic effects need to be explicitly considered when attempting to understand and predict how ECEs will alter marine ecosystem dynamics.
机译:当代生态学中的一个核心问题是气候变化将如何跨越时空尺度改变生态系统的结构和功能。事实表明,气候变化会改变生态格局,从个人到生态系统,通常会对生态系统的功能和服务产生负面影响。此外,由于气候变化加剧了海洋热浪(MHW)等更频繁,更严重的极端气候事件(ECE)的发生,因此这种急性事件已成为生态系统快速变化的越来越重要的驱动力。但是,我们对欧洲经委会影响的理解因发生此类事件的有限的大规模现场数据收集而受到阻碍。 2011年,一个名为Ningaloo Ni?o的MHW在比数千个夏天的海岸线高出近两个月的时间里,在比夏季温度高出4°C的海域中沐浴着澳大利亚西海岸。在温带和热带海草之间的过渡带,我们重新审视了Ningaloo Ni?o在澳大利亚西部的鲨鱼湾海草生态系统中(24.6 – 26.6o S)的影响的已公开和未公开数据。在此,我们关注的是复原力,包括在本地,区域和整个生态系统范围内以及过去8年中对干扰的抵抗力和恢复能力,对温带海草健康的热影响非常严重,同时与记录洪水带来的泥沙输入同时减少的光照条件也加剧了这种影响在东南部隔离带,以及增加的碎屑载荷和泥沙不稳定。最初的主要海草南极洲两栖动物最初大量脱叶,然后在海湾的60%至80%的草地上发生根茎死亡,相当于下降了1000多平方公里的草地。由非生物直接作用驱动的这种损失持续存在,而间接的生物作用(例如主要的海草损失)则使一些快速生长的热带物种(例如无盐藻)在某些地区定居。这些生物影响还影响了包括乌龟和儒艮在内的多种消费群体,对物种动态,食物网结构和生态系统恢复产生了影响。我们展示了多种压力源可以通过推动生态系统超出其承受能力而组合起来,引发极端的生态响应。最后,在试图理解和预测欧洲经委会如何改变海洋生态系统动态时,必须明确考虑直接非生物作用和间接生物作用。

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