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Optimum Sowing Dates for High-Yield Maize when Grown as Sole Crop in the North China Plain

机译:华北平原单作玉米高产玉米的最佳播种日期

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The maize sole cropping system solves problems related to ground water resource shortages and guarantees food security in the North China Plain. Using optimal sowing dates is an effective management practice for increasing maize yield. The goal of this study was to explore an optimum sowing date for high-yield maize. Six sowing dates (SDs) from early April to late June with intervals of 10 to 20 days between SD—SD1 (early April), SD2 (mid to late April), SD3 (early May), SD4 (mid to late May), SD5 (early June), SD6 (late June)—were applied from 2012 to 2017. The results showed that yield was correlated with the sowing date based on the thermal time before sowing ( r = 0.62**), which was defined as the pre-thermal time (PTt), and that the yield was steadily maintained at a high level (10,500 kg ha ?1 ) when PTt was greater than 479 °C. To satisfy the growing degree-days required for maturity, maize needs to be sown before a PTt of 750 °C. Data analysis of the results from 2014, 2015, and 2017 revealed the following: i) Most of the grain-filling parameters of late-sown dates (SD4, SD5 and SD6) were better than those in early-sown dates (SD1, SD2, and SD3) in all years, because of the high daily maximum temperature (Tmax) and wide diurnal temperature (Td) from silking to blister (R1–R2) of early-sown dates. The weight of maximum grain-filling rate (Wmax) of SD3 decreased compare with SD4 by the narrow Td from blister to physiological maturity (R2–R6) in all years (?5, ?12, and ?33 mg kernel ?1 in 2014, 2015, and 2017, respectively). ii) In 2017, the pollination failure rates of early-sown dates were 8.4~14.5%, which was caused by the high Tmax and Td of R1–R2. The apical kernel abortion rates were 28.6 (SD2) and 38.7% (SD3), which were affected by Tmax and Td during R2–R6. iii) Compared with late-sown dates, the wide Td of early-sown dates in R1–R2 was caused by higher Tmax, but the narrow Td in R2-R6 was caused by higher Tmin. Our results indicate that high-yielding maize can be obtained by postponing the sowing date with a PTt of 480~750 °C, which can prevent the negative effects of the high Tmax of R1–R2 and high Tmin of R2–R6 on kernel number and weight formation. Moreover, these above-mentioned traits should be considered for heat tolerance breeding to further increase the maize yield.
机译:玉米单一种植系统解决了与地下水资源短缺有关的问题,并保证了华北平原的粮食安全。使用最佳播种日期是提高玉米产量的有效管理方法。这项研究的目的是探索高产玉米的最佳播种期。从4月初到6月下旬的六个播种日期(SDs),SD-SD1(4月初),SD2(4月中旬至下旬),SD3(5月初),SD4(5月中旬至下旬)之间间隔10至20天SD5(6月初),SD6(6月下旬)于2012年至2017年使用。结果表明,基于播种前的热时间,产量与播种日期相关(r = 0.62 **),定义为预热时间(PTt),并且当PTt高于479°C时,产量稳定地维持在较高水平(> 10,500 kg ha?1)。为了满足成熟度所需的生长日数,需要在PTt 750°C之前播种玉米。对2014年,2015年和2017年的结果进行数据分析后发现:i)晚播日期(SD4,SD5和SD6)的大多数籽粒灌浆参数均优于早播日期(SD1,SD2)和SD3),因为早期播种的日最高温度(Tmax)和从丝化到起泡的日平均温度(Td)都很高。在所有年份(2014年分别为?5,?12和?33 mg仁)中,从水泡到生理成熟期(R2-R6)的狭窄Td,SD3的最大籽粒填充率(Wmax)的重量较SD4降低。 ,2015和2017)。 ii)2017年,早期播种的授粉失败率为8.4〜14.5%,这是由于R1-R2的最高Tmax和Td较高所致。顶核流产率分别为28.6(SD2)和38.7%(SD3),受R2-R6期间的Tmax和Td影响。 iii)与晚播日期相比,R1-R2中早播日期的宽Td是由较高的Tmax引起的,而R2-R6中的早播日期的窄Td是由较高的Tmin引起的。我们的结果表明,将PTt推迟到480〜750°C可以播种高产玉米,这可以防止R1-R2的高Tmax和R2-R6的高Tmin对玉米粒数的负面影响。和体重形成。此外,应将这些上述性状用于耐热育种,以进一步提高玉米产量。

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