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Modelling and evaluation of PEM hydrogen technologies for frequency ancillary services in future multi-energy sustainable power systems

机译:未来多能源可持续电力系统中用于频率辅助服务的PEM氢技术的建模和评估

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摘要

This paper examines the prospect of PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) electrolyzers and fuel cells to partake in European electrical ancillary services markets. First, the current framework of ancillary services is reviewed and discussed, emphasizing the ongoing European harmonization plans for future frequency balancing markets. Next, the technical characteristics of PEM hydrogen technologies and their potential uses within the electrical power system are discussed to evaluate their adequacy to the requirements of ancillary services markets. Last, a case study based on a realistic representation of the transmission grid in the north of the Netherlands for the year 2030 is presented. The main goal of this case study is to ascertain the effectiveness of PEM electrolyzers and fuel cells for the provision of primary frequency reserves. Dynamic generic models suitable for grid simulations are developed for both technologies, including the required controllers to enable participation in ancillary services markets. The obtained results show that PEM hydrogen technologies can improve the frequency response when compared to the procurement with synchronous generators of the same reserve value. Moreover, the fast dynamics of PEM electrolyzers and fuel cells can help mitigate the negative effects attributed to the reduction of inertia in the system.
机译:本文探讨了PEM(质子交换膜)电解器和燃料电池参与欧洲电气辅助服务市场的前景。首先,审查并讨论了当前的辅助服务框架,强调了针对未来频率平衡市场的现行欧洲统一计划。接下来,将讨论PEM氢技术的技术特征及其在电力系统中的潜在用途,以评估其对辅助服务市场需求的适当性。最后,提出了一个基于荷兰北部2030年输电电网现实表示的案例研究。该案例研究的主要目标是确定PEM电解器和燃料电池在提供一次频率储备方面的有效性。针对这两种技术都开发了适用于网格模拟的动态通用模型,包括所需的控制器,以能够参与辅助服务市场。所获得的结果表明,与购买具有相同备用值的同步发电机相比,PEM氢气技术可以改善频率响应。而且,PEM电解器和燃料电池的快速动态特性可以帮助减轻归因于系统惯性降低的负面影响。

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