【摘要】We give a brief review of the origin and acceleration of cosmic rays (CRs), emphasizing the production of CRs at different stages of supernova evolution by the first-order Fermi shock acceleration mechanism. We suggest that supernovae with trans-relativistic outflows, despite being rather rare, may accelerate CRs to energies above 10~(18) eV over the first year of their evolution. Supernovae in young compact clusters of massive stars, and interaction powered superluminous supernovae, may accelerate CRs well above the PeV regime. We discuss the acceleration of the bulk of the galactic CRs in isolated supernova remnants and re-acceleration of escaped CRs by the multiple shocks present in superbubbles produced by associations of OB stars. The effects of magnetic field amplification by CR driven instabilities, as well as superdiffusive CR transport, are discussed for nonthermal radiation produced by nonlinear shocks of all speeds including trans-relativistic ones.
【作者单位】Ioffe Institute, 194021, St. Petersburg, Russia,St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia,International Space Science Institute, Bern, Switzerland; Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202, USA; Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier CNRS/Universite de Montpellier, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, France; Ioffe Institute, 194021, St. Petersburg, Russia;
机译从Ia型和核心 - 崩塌的超新星遗迹中逃逸的宇宙射线的时间依赖性谱