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Historia and materia: The philosophical implications of Francis Bacon's natural history

机译:历史和本源:弗朗西斯·培根自然历史的哲学意蕴

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This article examines the philosophical implications underlying Bacon's views on historical knowledge, paying special attention to that variety of historical knowledge described by Bacon as "natural." More specifically, this article explores the interplay of history (historia) and fable (fabula). In the sphere of thought, fabula is the equivalent to materia in nature. Both are described by Bacon as being "versatile" and "pliant." In Bacon's system of knowledge, philosophy, as the domain of reason, starts from historiae and fabulae, once memory and the imagination have fulfilled their cognitive tasks. This means that, for Bacon, there is no such thing as a pure use of reason. He advocates a kind of reason that, precisely because it is involved with matter's inner motions (its "appetites," in Bacon's characteristic language), is constitutively 'impure'. The article shows how the terms historia and fabula cover key semantic areas in defining Bacon's philosophy: historia may mean "history" as well as "story," fabula "myth" as well "story." In both cases, we can see significant oscillations from a stronger meaning (close to those of matter and nature) to a weaker one (connected to wit and imagination), as if the power of nature decreases moving from histories and myths to stories. On the other hand, there are cases in which Bacon seems to stick to a diachronic view of the meaning of fables and histories, such that the transition from myths to history, especially natural history, is described as a collective effort towards reality and enlightenment.
机译:本文研究了培根关于历史知识的观点的哲学含义,并特别注意了培根形容为“自然”的各种历史知识。更具体地说,本文探讨了历史(historia)和寓言(fabula)之间的相互作用。在思想领域,法布拉在本质上等同于物质。培根将两者都描述为“多功能”和“柔软”。在培根的知识体系中,哲学(作为理性领域)始于历史和腓骨,一旦记忆和想象力完成了认知任务。这意味着,对于培根来说,没有纯粹使用理性的东西。他主张一种原因,正是因为它与物质的内在运动(培根的特征性语言中的“食欲”)有关,构成上是“不纯净的”。本文显示了历史和术语这些术语如何涵盖定义培根哲学的关键语义区域:历史可能既意味着“历史”也包括“故事”,术语“神话”也包括“故事”。在这两种情况下,我们都可以看到,从更强的意义(接近于物质和自然的意义)到更弱的意义(与机智和想象力相关)之间发生了巨大的振荡,仿佛自然的力量从历史,神话到故事逐渐减弱。另一方面,在某些情况下,培根似乎对寓言和历史的含义持有过时的看法,因此从神话到历史,特别是自然历史的过渡被描述为对现实和启蒙的集体努力。

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