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The first Azilian societies: new interpretation of the origin of the Azilianisation process in the northern French Alps based on the two occupation levels of the La Fru rockshelter (Saint-Christophe-la-Grotte, Savoie)

机译:第一个阿齐利亚人社会:基于拉弗鲁岩石棚的两个占领水平(萨瓦省圣克里斯托弗·拉格罗特),对法国北部阿尔卑斯山的阿齐利亚化过程的起源进行了新的解释

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摘要

The origin of the Azilian traditions caused much debate over the past decade, in particular in northern France. The analysis of lithic industries played a central role in these debates. A revision of the early Azilian deposits from La Fru (Saint-Christophe-la-Grotte, Savoie) will allow us to propose a new interpretation of this techno-complex outside the Paris Basin and to discuss the genesis of the 'Azilianisation' process in this context. The shelter at La Fru is currently one of the richest deposits known for the end of the Upper Palaeolithic in western Europe. It has yielded occupation levels from the Upper Magdalenian (17000 cal. BC) to the Middle Mesolithic (9000-8200 cal. BC) within three separate excavation areas (areas 1, 2, 3). The early Azilian occupations are located in area 1 (layer 3) and area 2 (layer 3). The numerous and reliable dates show that settlement of the site by early Azilians occurred between 12300 and 11300 cal. BC. Unfortunately, the lack of environmental data from the site does not allow the early Azilian settlements to be related to a chrono-environmental phase. The lithic industries from La Fru and especially layer 3 area 1, have already been the subject of numerous studies. However, they were never evaluated from a taphonomic and techno-economical perspective, although it is the combination of these analytical methods which will allow these karstic contexts to be integrated into a discussion on the evolution of Lateglacial societies on a European scale. Our aim is, first, to describe the contents of each early Azilian collection from La Fru, using modern analytical methods. In a second step it will be possible to compare our results with the best documented early Azilian collections (Le Closeau, Bois Ragot, etc.). Finally, we will propose a new reading of the early Azilian tradition in the context of the French Alps. The first step consisted of an archaeo-stratigraphic analysis of the archaeological sequences available. It allowed the different degrees of disturbance in each archaeological layer to be highlighted. For area 1, layer 3 is the result of a palimpsest of settlements from the early and recent Azilian. Therefore, the lithic industry is clearly the result of several occupations. Area 2, and layer 3 in particular, have been less affected by post-depositional disturbance. However a Magdalenian component was identified. The comparative technological analysis helped to highlight the similarities and differences between the two collections. The aim of the productions is similar in both collections. The first step of the 'cha?ne opératoire' consisted of the production of blades from 70 to 100 mm in length. These blades were transformed into common tools (burin, end-scraper, retouched blades). The technical processes are also the same between the two collections. We note that the most regular blades from area 1 were used as supports for burins, whereas for area 2 they were used as blanks for end-scrapers. The shorter blades (≤ 60 mm), produced in the second stage of the 'cha?ne opératoire', served as supports for the manufacture of backed points. In both collections they were based on regular blanks. However, we can note the presence of two distinct types of backed points (bipoints and monopoints). This is a characteristic shared with layer 4 of Bois-Ragot (Vienne). At La Fru, this coexistence of two types of backed points during the early phase of the Azilian is seen as having an economic origin: the shorter blades, probably produced in the final stages of knapping, were transformed into monopoints, the longest into bipoints. From a typological or technological point of view, the early Azilian lithic industry from La Fru shows similarities with contemporary or sub-contemporary settlements from the Pyrenees to the north of the Paris Basin.
机译:在过去十年中,尤其是在法国北部,阿齐利亚传统的起源引起了很多争论。在这些辩论中,对石器业的分析起着核心作用。对拉弗鲁(萨瓦省圣克里斯多夫-拉格罗特)早期阿齐利亚矿床的修订,将使我们能够对巴黎盆地外的这种技术复杂性提出新的解释,并讨论“阿齐利亚化”过程的成因。在这种情况下。拉弗鲁(La Fru)的避难所目前是西欧上古旧石器时代末期最富盛的矿床之一。它在三个单独的开挖区域(1、2、3区)中产生了从上马格达林阶(公元前17000年)到中石器时代(公元前9000-8200年)的占领水平。早期的阿兹利亚人占领区位于1区(第3层)和2区(第3层)。大量可靠的日期表明,早期Azilian对该地点的沉降发生在12300和11300 cal之间。公元前。不幸的是,由于缺乏该地点的环境数据,所以早期的阿兹利亚人定居点与年代-环境阶段无关。来自拉弗鲁(La Fru)尤其是第3层1区的石器工业已经成为众多研究的主题。然而,尽管正是这些分析方法的结合,才使这些岩溶环境能够被整合到欧洲规模的晚冰期社会发展的讨论中,但从未从理论和技术经济学的角度对其进行评估。我们的目标是,首先,使用现代分析方法来描述La Fru的每个Azilian早期收藏的内容。在第二步中,可以将我们的结果与记录最好的早期Azilian藏品(Le Closeau,Bois Ragot等)进行比较。最后,我们将在法国阿尔卑斯山的背景下重新解读早期的阿齐利亚传统。第一步是对可用的考古序列进行考古地层分析。它可以突出显示每个考古层的不同程度的干扰。对于区域1,第3层是最早期和最近的阿齐利亚人定居点的结果。因此,石器业显然是几种职业的结果。区域2(尤其是第3层)受到沉积后干扰的影响较小。但是,确定了马格达林的成分。对比技术分析有助于突出这两个系列之间的异同。这两个系列的作品目标相似。 “Chaéneopératoire”的第一步是生产长度在70至100 mm之间的叶片。这些刀片被转换为通用工具(修边刀,端刮刀,修饰过的刀片)。两个集合之间的技术过程也相同。我们注意到,来自区域1的最规则的刀片被用作burins的支撑,而对于区域2的它们被用作端刮刀的坯料。在“Chaéneopératoire”的第二阶段中生产的较短的刀片(≤60 mm)用作制造支撑点的支撑。在这两个集合中,它们都是基于常规空白。但是,我们可以注意到存在两种不同类型的支持点(双点和单点)。这是Bois-Ragot(Vienne)的第4层共有的特征。在拉弗鲁(La Fru),阿齐利亚人早期阶段两种类型的支持点并存被认为具有经济渊源:较短的刀片(可能是在绑扎的最后阶段生产的)被转换为单点,最长的刀片被转换为双点。从类型或技术角度来看,拉弗鲁的早期阿兹利亚石器业与从比利牛斯山脉到巴黎盆地北部的当代或近现代定居点有相似之处。

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