Plant SET domain-containing proteins: Structure, function and regulation


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Modification of the histone proteins that form the core around which chromosomal DNA is looped has profound epigenetic effects on the accessibility of the associated DNA for transcription, replication and repair. The SET domain is now recognized as generally having methyltransferase activity targeted to specific lysine residues of histone H3 or H4. There is considerable sequence conservation within the SET domain and within its flanking regions. Previous reviews have shown that SET proteins from Arabidopsis and maize fall into five classes according to their sequence and domain architectures. These classes generally reflect specificity for a particular substrate. SET proteins from rice were found to fall into similar groupings, strengthening the merit of the approach taken. Two additional classes, VI and VII, were established that include proteins with truncated/ interrupted SET domains. Diverse mechanisms are involved in shaping the function and regulation of SET proteins. These include protein–protein interactions through both intra- and inter-molecular associations that are important in plant developmental processes, such as flowering time control and embryogenesis. Alternative splicing that can result in the generation of two to several different transcript isoforms is now known to be widespread. An exciting and tantalizing question is whether, or how, this alternative splicing affects gene function. For example, it is conceivable that one isoform may debilitate methyltransferase function whereas the other may enhance it, providing an opportunity for differential regulation. The review concludes with the speculation that modulation of SET protein function is mediated by antisense or sense–antisense RNA.
机译:组蛋白的修饰形成染色体DNA围绕的核心,对相关DNA的转录,复制和修复的可及性具有深远的表观遗传学影响。现在公认SET域通常具有针对组蛋白H3或H4的特定赖氨酸残基的甲基转移酶活性。 SET结构域及其侧翼区域内有相当大的序列保守性。先前的评论表明,来自拟南芥和玉米的SET蛋白根据其序列和结构域结构分为五类。这些类别通常反映对特定底物的特异性。水稻中的SET蛋白被发现属于相似的类别,从而增强了所采用方法的优点。建立了另外两个类别,VI和VII,包括具有截短/中断的SET域的蛋白质。多种机制参与SET蛋白的功能和调节。其中包括通过分子内和分子间缔合的蛋白质-蛋白质相互作用,这在植物发育过程中很重要,例如开花时间控制和胚发生。现在已经知道可以导致产生两个到几个不同的转录本同工型的替代剪接。一个令人兴奋且诱人的问题是这种替代性剪接是否或如何影响基因功能。例如,可以想到一种同工型可能使甲基转移酶功能衰弱,而另一种同工型则可能使甲基转移酶功能增强,从而为差异调节提供了机会。该评论以推测SET蛋白功能的调节由反义或有义反义RNA介导为结论。



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