Anthropologia transscendentalis. Kant's theory of human nature


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In recent years mankind has greatly extended its knowledge of living things, in general, and of itself, in particular. Such a wide-ranging body of knowledge has consequently led to the need for a theory to encompass it, that is, a coherent framework in which to systematically arrange mankind's understanding of itself, not only with regard to its physical nature, but to its individuality and sociality as well. Such a theory would moreover provide the means to mediate between the various domains of scientific and technological enquiry, on the one hand, and the cultural dimensions of human society, on the other. Already in the 18th century, Immanuel Kant strove to establish a discipline that was systematic, yet at the same time accessible. It was due to his efforts that philosophical anthropology was introduced into university curricula, to the benefit not only of philosophers, but of physicians and jurists as well. Kant's position is by no means prejudicial towards science. To the contrary, he was quite careful to appraise the impact of the sciences on the overall cognitive horizons of mankind and therefore on their potential to influence humankind's idea of itself. Clearly such a perspective is relevant to today's strongly felt need to reconcile modern neuroscience's revolutionary findings on the biological bases of the mind - of man's experience and behaviour - with the idea man needs of himself in order to orient his actions not only as individual but also as 'citizen of the world' as well - something on which Kant worked with unremitting commitment throughout his entire research career. This article traces Kant's anthropological conception with regard to four specific issues: (1) its relation to science; (2) the relationship between empirical and transcendental in the speculative use and in practical use of reason; (3) the dialectic between what nature does and what human beings do, in the construction of humanity itself; (4) and finally about the character of the person and the character of the human species.
机译:近年来,人类极大地扩展了对生物的知识,特别是对自身的知识。因此,如此广泛的知识体系导致需要一种将其包含在内的理论,即一个连贯的框架,在该框架中系统地安排人类对自身的理解,不仅是关于其物理性质,而且是其个性和社交性。此外,这种理论将提供一种手段,一方面在科学和技术研究的各个领域之间进行调解,另一方面又为人类社会的文化方面提供调解。早在18世纪,伊曼纽尔·康德(Immanuel Kant)就努力建立一门系统的学科,但同时又易于使用。正是由于他的努力,哲学人类学才被引入大学课程,这不仅使哲学家,医生和法学家也受益。康德的立场绝不妨碍科学。相反,他非常谨慎地评估了科学对人类整体认知范围的影响,因此评估了它们对影响人类自身观念的潜能。显然,这种观点与当今强烈认为需要调和现代神经科学在思想的生物学基础上(人类的经验和行为)的革命性发现与人类自身需要的思想相一致,以便不仅以个人的身份而且以行为的方向也是“世界公民”-康德在整个研究生涯中一直坚持不懈地致力于这一工作。本文追溯了康德关于四个具体问题的人类学概念:(1)与科学的关系; (2)在推测性使用和实际使用中,经验与先验之间的关系; (3)在人类自身的建构中,自然与人类之间的辩证法; (4)最后是关于人的性格和人类的性格。



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