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Rigorous coupled-wave analysis equivalent-index-slab method for analyzing 3D angular misalignment in interlayer grating couplers

机译:层间光栅耦合器中3D角度失准的严格耦合波分析等效指标平板法

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The interlayer waveguide grating coupling efficiencies under angular (rotational) misalignments are simulated using the 3D rigorous coupled-wave analysis (3D-RCWA) together with the RCWA equivalent-index-slab (RCWA-EIS) method. As examples of conical diffraction, rotations about the two coordinate axes, x and z, defined by the vectors [ 1 0 0] and [ 0 0 1], respectively, as well as an arbitrary axis, defined by the vector [ 2 2 1], are simulated for binary rectangular-groove gratings. The interlayer grating coupling efficiency is approximated by the product of the top-and bottom-grating diffraction efficiencies (DEs). It is found that the bottom-grating DEs decrease about 25% when the bottom grating is rotated +/- 0.1 rad (5.73 degrees) about the z-axis. DEs slightly increase (5% to 10% depending on the grating structures) when the bottom grating is rotated +/- 0.1 rad about the x-axis. This is consistent with the diffraction behavior of an over-modulated grating. When the bottom grating is rotated about the vector [ 2 2 1], the change in DEs is asymmetric with a 100% decrease at a rotation angle -0.1 rad and a 67% decrease at a rotation angle +/- 0.1 rad. The method is shown to be computationally efficient and numerically stable for grating structures with optimized parameters, and the resulting bottom-grating diffraction efficiencies demonstrate similar trends as those calculated by the 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations. The procedure presented can be directly used in the analysis and design of interlayer waveguide grating coupling for optical interconnects in high-density integrated electronics. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America.
机译:使用3D严格耦合波分析(3D-RCWA)和RCWA等效折射率平板(RCWA-EIS)方法,模拟了角度(旋转)未对准下的层间波导光栅耦合效率。作为圆锥形衍射的示例,分别绕着由矢量[1 0 0]和[0 0 1]定义的两个坐标轴x和z以及由矢量[2 2 1定义的任意轴]旋转。对二元矩形凹槽光栅进行模拟。层间光栅耦合效率可以通过上下光栅衍射效率(DEs)乘积来估算。已发现,当底部光栅绕z轴旋转+/- 0.1 rad(5.73度)时,底部光栅DEs减小约25%。当底部光栅绕x轴旋转+/- 0.1 rad时,DE会稍微增加(取决于光栅结构的5%到10%)。这与过调制光栅的衍射行为一致。当底部光栅围绕矢量[2 2 1]旋转时,DEs的变化是不对称的,在-0.1 rad的旋转角处减小100%,在+/- 0.1 rad的旋转角处减小67%。对于具有优化参数的光栅结构,该方法具有较高的计算效率和数值稳定性,并且所产生的底部光栅衍射效率与3D有限差分时域仿真计算得出的趋势相似。所提出的程序可以直接用于高密度集成电子设备中的光学互连的层间波导光栅耦合的分析和设计。 (C)2016年美国眼镜学会。

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