摘要：为得到大型商用飞机撞击的冲击载荷特性及其计算方法,基于火箭橇加载试验平台,搭建了飞机模型撞击钢筋混凝土运动靶体测试系统,开展了两种不同尺寸飞机模型的撞击试验,利用高速摄影技术获得了飞机模型撞靶前的姿态、着速及飞机模型撞靶的破坏过程.采用加速度测试系统和激光干涉测速系统,分别得到撞击过程中运动靶体的加速度和速度历史,据此得到靶体受到的冲击载荷-时间曲线,二者吻合,验证了测试系统的可靠性.通过飞机模型上安装的机载存储过载测试系统,获得了撞击过程中飞机模型的负加速度-时间曲线,由此确定了修正的Riera理论模型中的静载荷项,并进一步计算得到靶体受到的冲击载荷-时间曲线,与通过测试靶体的加速度或速度得到的结果一致,验证了使用修正的Riera理论模型计算飞机模型冲击载荷的合理性及计算方法的正确性,同时确定了适合于本试验中飞机模型的修正系数a.%To investigate the calculation method and the characteristics of the impact load for a large commercial aircraft impacting a nuclear power plant, we developed an integral test measurement system using the experiments of aircraft models impacting a movable steel-reinforced concrete target via a rocket sled loading test platform, and carried out two impact tests on two aircraft models of different sizes. In the two tests, the flying attitude and velocity of the aircraft models and the whole impact process were recorded using a high-speed photography system, and the acceleration and velocity time histories of the target were obtained using an acceleration measurement system and a displacement interferometer system for any reflector (DISAR), respectively. The computed results of the impact loads calculated by the measured acceleration and velocity data, respectively, were found to agree well, verifying the reliability of the measurement system. Moreover, we obtained the acceleration time histories of the aircraft models using the onboard overload storage, and calculated the crushing load of the aircraft model based on the measured data. On the other hand, we also calculated the impact load time histories using the modified Riera equation. Compared the impact load history calculated from the measured acceleration data of the aircraft model with that calculated from the measured acceleration data of the target, the modified Riera model was verified and the coefficient a was determined.