摘要：中国的文化与自然遗产地资源丰富、类型多样，但从功能发挥而言，普遍存在没有保护好、没有服务好、没有经营好等共性问题。国际经验说明，国家公园体制是解决其中多数顶级遗产地管理问题的最佳方式。但各方对国家公园的相关概念认识不统一，对中央要求的体制试点工作理解不到位，相关试点工作存在不针对管理问题、不区别自然保护区和国家公园、不聚焦资金机制等共性问题。为此，应根据试点文件，紧扣“统一、规范、高效”做好体制设计，并加强遴选标准、区划方法、资金机制及权属变通控制制度设计等方面的技术工作，以确保实现“保护为主、全民公益性优先”的体制建设目标。%There are many cultural and natural heritage sites in China with various resources, but also have common problems from functional performance perspective. They are inefifcient protection, incomplete service and poor management. Based on the global experiences, building national park system is the best approach to solving the problems in most of heritage sites, and thus China central government initiated to pilot the national park system development in Jan. 2015. However, the stakeholders of national park system have different understanding upon related deifnitions and concepts, as wel as misunderstanding the instructive ifles issued by central government. The existing pilots are facing 3 common chalenges: not exactly aiming at their management issues, confounding the national park with nature reserve and not focusing on the ifnancial mechanism. According to the ifles, the management system of pilot provinces should pay more attention to “uniifcation, standardization and high efifciency”, and strengthen the technical aspects of selection criteria, zonation, ifnance mechanism and land easement etc., to make sure the realization of the objective of management system development, which is described as “conservation ifrst and for people’s beneift”.