摘要：Based on the Children Personality Questionnaire (CPQ) and Social Behavior Scale, the paper probes into the relationship of 495 primary and middle school students' personality characteristics and cooperation behaviors. The result shows that there exist significant differences between boys and girls in the personality characteristics such as excitement, sociability, stability, easiness, persistence, sensitivity, automaticity and nervousness. Moreover, the children in different grades appear different in stability, excitement, strength, easiness, sensitivity, brightness, persistence, braveness, prudence, anxiety, self-discipline and tension. There is a significant negative relationship in energy of the pupils between their personality characteristics and cooperation behaviors. As the middle school students are concerned, there is a significant positive relationship in persistence and cooperation behaviors, and negative relationship in easiness and cooperation behaviors.%本文采用儿童人格问卷(CPQ)和社会行为量表,探讨了495名中小学生的人格特征及与合作行为的关系.结果发现,男生和女生在兴奋性、乐群性、稳定性、轻松性、有恒性、敏感性、自律性和紧张性等人格特质上存在着显著差异;不同年级学生在稳定性、兴奋性、恃强性、轻松性、敏感性、聪慧性、有恒性、敢为性、世故性、忧虑性、自律性、紧张性等人格特质上存在显著差异;小学生的充沛性人格特质与合作行为有显著负相关,初中生的有恒性与合作行为有显著正相关,轻松性与合作行为存在显著负相关.