摘要：设立于1987年的导游许可制度,已明显跟不上当前大众旅游阶段的发展节奏.在许多新业态旅游活动中,获得导游许可,持有有导游证的人,不能胜任新业态旅游的带团服务;能够胜任的,又往往是无证人员.这造成了两个方面的困境:一是新业态旅游经营者方面,如安排持证导游,服务不到位,实质上损害游客权益;安排无证专业人员,存在民事纠纷和行政处罚的风险.二是新业态从业人员方面,例如户外运动专家如果要想合法带团,就必须考取导游证;但导游考试强调的主要是景点、景区旅游讲解的知识和技能,实际带团基本用不上.这种"合法性与合理性"对立的局面,凸显了导游许可制度本身的正当性危机.鉴于导游服务具有公共利益属性以及其他特性,该许可尚符合《行政许可法》有关许可设立的规定,有必要予以保留,但须及时改革调整.为此首先要重新认识导游服务的内容,它可以为两个部分:一是基础导游服务,是所有旅游业态的导游服务通用的,即安全、准时地为旅游团队提供组织、协调、陪同服务;二是专项导游服务,如观光讲解、户外运动、摄影、儿童教育等,不同的业态有不同的类型.以该分类为基础,实行"许可+认证"的方案.许可仅针对基础导游服务部分,由政府依法实施;认证针对专项导游服务,由社会第三方组织根据市场需要实施.一个是法律、是强制、是兜底;一个是市场、是自愿、是优质.在这样的框架下,导游许可制度需要调整的主要是导游考试,考试科目设置应以基础导游服务的内容为依据,侧重考核提供基础导游服务所需要的知识与技能.%The permission system for tour guides in China, established in 1987, has not been able to keep pace with the current development of mass tourism. In many new types of tourism, the person who receives permission and possesses a tour guide license is not competent to deliver the qualified service. While competent ones fail to obtain such a permission. The situation has given rise to two problems. One is concerned with operators of new types of tourism. For a licensed tour guide, the unqualified service will be against the rights and interests of tourists. For those without tour guide license,there will be a risk of civil disputes and administrative penalties.The other is concerned with the practitioners of new types of tourism. For example, if an outdoor sports expert wants to legally engage in tour guide work,he or she must pass the tour guide examination,which mainly emphasizes on knowledge and skills for scenic spots, but is not necessarily relevant to the service he or she delivers. Such a contradiction between legitimacy and rationality highlights the legitimacy crisis of China's tour guide permission system. At the same time, the state is vigorously pushing forward reforms of the administrative examination and approval system, and canceling administrative licenses in all areas for a streamlined administration and delegated power system.As the tour guide service has public interest properties,and the permission system can help resolve the problem of market failure,the permission system is still in conformity with the provisions of the Administrative License Law on the establishment of permission. Therefore, the permission system should be reserved, but it must be reformed in time. To this end, the contents of tour guide service must be reevaluated. They can be divided into two parts.The first is the basic tour guide service,which covers all types of tourism;that is,providing tourist groups with a safe and punctual organization,coordination and escorting services. The second is specialized guide service, such as interpretation services for sightseeing tours, professional guidance services for outdoor sports tourism or photography tourism, or children's education services in children's tourism. Different categories of tourism need different types of tour guide services. Based on this classification, the current permission system may adopt a"permission plus certification"reform program. The permission aspect is only applicable to basic tour guide services and is implemented by the government in accordance with the law.The certification targets at special guide services and is organized by a third-party social organization in accordance with market needs. Permission is legal, compulsory with the minimum guarantee, whereas certification is market-oriented with the voluntary nature and high quality.Based on this program,the main task of the reform of the tour guide permission system is to adjust the contents of the tour guide examination.Examination topics should be based on the contents of the basic tour guide services and focus on the knowledge and skills for basic tour guide services.