摘要：Based on the background of the reform of the Communist Party of China and state institutions in the new era, the purpose of this article is to explore the objectives and challenges in deepening the natural resources management reform, and to put forward the value guidelines and strategic choices of the natural resources management reform in the future. The methods of literature research and comprehensive analysis are applied. The results show that the goal of deepening the natural resources management reform is to realize "five unification": unified investigation and evaluation, unified right registration, unified "multiple planning integration" and land use control, unified natural resources assets management and unified supervision. Confronted with the challenges like the theoretical shortage of natural resource management, the scientific guidance shortage of exploitation and utilization ethics, the long-term existence of contradictions and conflicts between development and protection, the uncertainty of new management system effectiveness, the natural resource management reform needs to pay attention to "justice and efficiency", emphasize "sustainable utilization", mix "integration of three assets" and create "effective market" in order to reinvent the new pattern of natural resource management. In conclusion, the natural resource management reform in the new era should perfect the natural resource market system based on the cadastral information system, and build the land spatial planning system with the plan as the leading. It is also necessary to push the land use control with the "three lines" as the bottom line. Promoting the life community of the "mountain-water-forest-field-lake-grass" with the consolidation as the grasp is also important. In combination with governance, we should build a natural resource management legal system based on the rule of law, to create a new pattern of natural resources management of "three systems, one regulation and one administration".%研究目的:立足新时代党和国家机构改革背景,分析自然资源管理改革目标定位和面临挑战,明确未来自然资源管理改革价值导向与战略选择.研究方法:文献研究法,综合分析法.研究结果:自然资源管理改革的目标定位是实现"五统一",即统一调查评价、统一确权登记、统一"多规合一"和用途管制、统一资产管理和统一督查监管.针对当前自然资源管理理论储备不足、开发利用伦理缺乏科学引导、开发和保护矛盾冲突长期存在、新管理体制效能有待实践检验等挑战,自然资源管理改革亟需注重"公平效率"、强调"永续利用"、融合"三资一体"、构建"有效市场",切实重塑自然资源管理新格局.研究结论:新时代自然资源管理改革应该以权籍为基础,完善自然资源市场体系;以规划为龙头,构建国土空间规划体系;以"三线"为底线,推进全域国土空间用途管制;以整治为抓手,推进"山水林田湖草"生命共同体综合治理;以法制为保障,构建自然资源管理法律体系,从而塑造"三体系一管制一治理"的自然资源管理新格局.