摘要：基因组转录后的产物绝大部分为非编码RNA（non-coding RNA, ncRNA），编码蛋白质的信使RNA （messenger RNA, mRNA）只占少数。长链非编码RNA （Large non-coding RNA lncRNA）指ncRNA的长度超过200个核苷酸，lncRNA的表达具有高度组织特异性。迄今为止，有超过111000的lncRNAs得到鉴定并发现在组织中呈现出特异性的表达。 lncRNAs参与各种细胞过程，包括细胞生长相关的基因表达、分化、DNA复制、重组、修复以及细胞迁移等。文章总结并重点讨论lncRNA表达与肿瘤的关系，尤其是一些在细胞不同分化阶段有差异表达的lncRNA，发现lncRNAs的表达与细胞分化阶段和癌症细胞类型相关。因此，明确已知的lncRNAs，特别是与肿瘤类型、细胞分化、转移相关的lncRNAs的表达谱，对肿瘤的分期、诊断及预后的判断非常有用。在血液或其他组织液选择性的lncRNAs检测将为癌症的早期诊断和大规模的肿瘤筛查提供帮助。%Most transcripts in the genome are non-coding RNAs(ncRNA) compared to the protein-coding mRNAs. Large non-coding RNA(lncRNA) refers to ncRNA with more than 200 nucleotides in length and seems to be expressed in a highly tissue specific and age-dependent manner. Notably, a very large number with more than 111, 000 human annotated lncRNA transcripts are meanwhile described expressed in specific tissues and cell types. LncRNAs are involved in a variety of cellular processes that include the regulation of gene expression programs related to cell growth, differentiation, DNA replication, recombination and repair as well as cell migration. Here, we summarize and focus on lncRNAs expression and tumor, especially, the differentially expression of lncRNAs at various stages of cell differentiation. Further we summarize evidences that reveal the specific expression at various stages of cellular differentiation in a time-and space-dependent manner indicating that lncRNAs exhibit also a cell type and stage specific expression in cancer cells. The use of the high specificity of lncRNA expression will provide a very an important tool for diagnostics and perhaps therapeutic intervention. Thus, the detection of selected lncRNAs in blood samples or other tissue fluids will be very useful for early cancer diagnosis and for large-scale cancer screening.