摘要：To Williams, revolution is a complicated, holistic behavior in real situations. To real revolu-tionary acts, only responses are not enough. For they are easy to fall into the pattern of ”existing tragedy ideology”. To avoid this, a protection mechanism must be established to escape the revolution. To un-derstand the revolution from the tragic point of view is in fact to establish an effective linkage mechanism between the tragic experience, understanding and action, and to take a positive attitude to face the tragedy, recognize the tragedy and negate the tragedy in real actions. Compared with the classical discourse of Marx and Engels, Williams’ exposition of the revolutionary tragedy has been significantly modified and expanded in the connotation and extension of the revolutionary tragedy, but there are some areas deserving further discussion.%威廉斯认为革命是真实情景中复杂的、整体的行动。对于真实的革命行动，简单的反应是不够的，容易陷入“既有悲剧意识形态”的窠臼，从而建立一套逃避革命的保护机制。从悲剧性的角度理解革命，实际就是要在悲剧性感受、认识与行动之间建立有效的联动机制，以积极的姿态直面悲剧、认识悲剧用真实的行动否定悲剧。与马克思、恩格斯的经典论述相比，威廉斯关于革命悲剧的论述明显修改、扩充了革命悲剧的内涵与外延，但也存在一些值得商榷的地方。
摘要：《易传》在中国传统审美思想上的重要意义日渐发现。《易传》的“天人合一”不单是政治—伦理性的，它还具有显明的审美之维。萌发于殷周之际的“人文”精神为后来的《易传》“三才观”和“天人合一”准备了理论条件。《咸》卦描述的男女阴阳感应是天人感应的基本模式，阴阳两两相感，最终上升到“天人合一”。以感通论为主要内容的“天人合一”为中国传统审美思想所推崇的生生之美、太和之美构筑了哲理基础。%At the beginning of 20th century, Chinese academic community gradually knew that Yi Zhuan is important to the traditional Chinese aesthetic experience. The unity of heaven and humanity explained in Yi Zhuan is not only political-ethical, but also aesthetic. The humanity spirit sprang up at the turn of Yin and Zhou Dynasties, which created the theoretical conditions for the notion of Three Life Forces and Unity of Heaven and Humanity. The response between man and woman described by Xian Hexagram is the basic model of response between heaven and humanity — response to communication, from two to one, finally ascending the unity of heaven and humanity. As such, the unity of heaven and humanity lays a philosophical foundation for the beauty of becoming and the beauty of great harmoniousness.
摘要：《荷塘月色》解读上每个特殊年代的文艺思潮和文艺教育的印记，从不同侧面反映了全面、真实的社会和历史。经典及经典的阐释，是历史的也是当代的，既要倡导文化的多元和体验性阅读，又要反对历史虚无主义式的“过度阐释”，重新审视“知人论世”式传统阅读所带来的“社会性”的繁琐和“文艺性”的不足，本着“育人”与“立人”的高度，以彰显我国的文化传统和时代精神。%Since the publication of the prose”the Lotus Pond by Moonlight”, its interpretations have always carried the marks of literary trend and art education in different times, offering us different perspectives on our society and history. Classic works and their interpretations are both of history and of the time —advocating cultural plurality and experiential reading and at the same time opposing the historical nihilistic over-interpretation, and reviewing the disadvantages of traditional reading which is too much loaded with social understanding but short of literariness. The interpretation of literature should be of educational significance in carrying forward our cultural tradition and spirit of the time.
摘要：There has been a controversy on what Biluo is in the past. Some took it as Bobo (a steamed bun), some insisted it is pilaf or something related, and some considered it as food like pancake or noodle. Ancient scholars such as Zhai Hao insisted it is a kind of pastry, namely a steamed bun, while academic circles today mostly say it is the pilaf by their pronunciation in some ethnic minority languages in China, foreign languages and the Chinese language. This paper concluded that Biluo is a steamed bun rather than pilaf by investigating the ingredients recorded in ancient literature, and, in line with ancient local chronicles in the Dynasties of Ming and Qing, held that Biluo came to be pronounced as Bo in a fast manner and Bobo replaced Biluo as a general term today.%饆饠的所指，历来有多种说法，或认为是饽饽，或认为是穆斯林的抓饭、八宝饭，或认为是类似于锅贴的包馅面食、面条，其中较常见的说法是“饽饽”说和“抓饭”说。“饽饽”说以古人翟灏为代表，认为是饼属，即饽饽。今天学界则多持“抓饭”说，认为是穆斯林民族盛行的抓饭，或者是与抓饭相关的食物，因为在外语及我国一些少数民族语言中，抓饭的读音与饆饠相似。文章通过考察历代文献关于饆饠做法的记载，发现“抓饭”说不可取，饆饠并非抓饭，而是饽饽类面食。最后结合宋元时期流行切脚语的时代特性及明清方志类文献关于饽饽样式的记载，认为“饆饠”二字可以急读成“饽”字，饽饽后来代替饆饠成为通用叫法。
摘要：This paper, from the perspective of social governance, analyzed the rationality of farmer group— the subject of rural social governance. It believed that the survival rationality is the basic criterion, the economic rationality runs into diﬃculties, and the rational value generates gradually. The rural grassroots social governance innovation lied in strengthening the leading role of the CPC and the government, cultivating all kinds of social organizations that aim to develop economy, improving the management level of religious organizations, and strengthening the cultivation of public spirit.%文章从社会治理视角出发，对农村社会治理主体——农民群体的理性状况进行实证分析，认为当前农民理性呈现出生存理性是基本准则、经济理性遭遇困境、价值理性逐渐生成的状态，农村基层社会治理创新的方向在于加强党和政府的主导作用；积极培育以发展经济合作为主的各类社会组织；提高宗教组织的管理水平；加强农民公共精神培育。
摘要：To protect watershed resources and the environment and to promote the coordinated develop-ment of upstream and downstream regions, the compensation for the ecological beneficiaries has been widely practiced in various countries. In contrast, the compensation in international river basins is rare due to the existence of multiple barriers. It is still at the preliminary level regardless of its depth and breadth. To extend the compensation in international basins requires international legislations to establish the principle of ecological beneficiary compensation, strengthening organizations such as making corresponding changes in the form of the organization, membership and functions, and strengthening the cooperation among the concerned states to determine the rights and obligations of the parties by negotiation.%国内流域生态受益方补偿实践已在各国广泛展开，但由于多重障碍的存在，国际流域生态受益方补偿却并不多见。无论从深度上还是广度上，国际流域生态受益方补偿都尚停留于初级层面。要使生态受益方补偿充分运用于国际流域，就必须完善国际立法，确立生态受益方补偿原则；健全组织机构，在机构的形式、成员组成及职能等方面进行相应变革；加强流域国间的合作，以协商方式来确定各方在补偿中的权利及义务。
摘要：吉尔吉斯斯坦在1996—2013阶段的丝路东向贸易表明，该地理方向的贸易有进一步扩大的潜力。吉尔吉斯斯坦拓展丝路东向贸易的优势主要有：该国为WTO成员国，地处欧亚之间的中间地带，广泛地参与了各种区域组织。存在的劣势主要有：存在较多不利贸易发展的指标和不利于出口的因素，吉国拓展丝路东向贸易将面临着阻碍进出口的种种外部因素的挑战。吉尔吉斯斯坦必须积极改善交通和通讯等商贸环境，培育企业能力等，由此参与到丝绸之路经济带建设并逐步扩大丝路东向贸易。%Silk Road Economic Belt is a grand strategy to revive the close interaction between countries along the Road. The 1996-2013 trade indicates that Kyrgyzstan has the potential to increase its eastward trade for it being a member of WTO, in the hub of Eurasian continent and widely engaged in various regional organizations. Kyrgyzstan, however, has some disadvantages — many indexes against trade development, factors against exports, and external factors challenging its eastbound exports. Kyrgyzstan must actively improve its transport and communications, foster enterprises, and participate in the development of Silk Road Economic Belt.
摘要：Wang Xiaoming has devoted himself to cultural studies with the attitude of ’standing horizon-tally’. He insists on a serious criticizing position in academic studies. On the other hand, he takes an active intervention attitude — a positive intervention in the criticism and a sharp criticism in the intervention. Therefore, his cultural studies stands horizontally in and out of the university — engaged in criticism and intervention within the system and in the corresponding practices. Such cultural studies contain”construc-tion” in ”de-construction” and ”de-construction” in ”construction”. In a global/historical view, based on China’s problems, and with an interdisciplinary approach, he analyzes the contemporary society, expands cultural practices by reconstructing culture, and focuses on ’Where China is Going”as his ultimate goal.%王晓明以“横站”的状态投身于文化研究工作：一方面坚持严肃批判的学术立场，另一方面采取积极介入的行为态度，批判中带有积极的介入性，介入时不乏鲜明的批判性。也因此，他的文化研究工作是“横站”于大学内外的：一方面在体制内展开批判与介入的活动，另一方面在体制外进行介入与批判的实践。这样的文化研究，“破”中有“立”，“立”中有“破”，并以问题为导向，用跨学科的方法，在一种全球、历史的视野里，分析当代社会，展开文化实践，进行文化重建，而根本落脚点则是思考“中国向何处去”。
摘要：晚唐浓厚佛教氛围中，杜牧评价李贺首用“牛鬼蛇神”一语，借佛教语汇譬喻李贺诗风特质。随着宗教环境的变化发展，北宋和南宋的李贺评论虽因袭杜牧，但关注的重点不再是李贺诗歌的怪诞意象和诡异诗风。北宋佛教发展衰落，评论者关注较多的是李贺卓异的才华，而南宋禅、道合流，评论者着意于李贺超凡脱俗的气质。从晚唐到南宋，李贺评价的变化皆离不开宗教语境的熏染。可以说，晚唐至南宋的李贺评价在宗教语境的变化中完成了评价重心的转移。%In the strong atmosphere of Buddhism in the late Tang Dynasty, Du Mu evaluated Li He by firstly using the term ”monster”, a term borrowed from Buddhism to describe Li He’s poetic style. With the development of the religious environment, the comment on Li He in the Northern and Southern Song Dynasties inherited from Du Mu, but their focus is no longer on his grotesque images and quirky style. The critics paid more attention to Li He’s extraordinary talent in the Northern Song Dynasty as Buddhism was declining, and in the Southern Song Dynasty when Zen and Taoism were converged, the reviewers focused deliberately on his free temperament. From the late Tang Dynasty to the Southern Song Dynasty, comments on Li He were closely connected with the influence of religious context. It can be said that in the late Tang Dynasty to the Southern Song Dynasty the comments on Li He completed the transfer of focus in the religious context.
摘要：文章以两任务委托代理模型考察了政治关联对经营者收益、投资者收益和社会福利的影响，得出政治关联虽然有利于经营者收益，但对投资者收益和社会福利有消极经济影响的理论分析结论。在此基础上，通过收集我国上市公司在银行间债券市场发行短期融资券、中期票据以及在股票市场公开增发股票的数据，实证研究验证了理论结论。文章从模型分析和经验研究方面丰富了有关政治关联对企业绩效影响的相关研究领域文献，对进一步发挥市场配置资源具有一定实践和政策启示。%By applying the Two-Task Principal Agent Theoretical Model, this paper showed that the polit-ical connection benefits the operators’ revenue, but negatively influences the investors’ income and the social welfare. That the political connections significantly decreased the corporate capital allocation eﬃciency and the enterprise lowered the level of ROE was proved by utilizing a manually constructed database of the listed companies issuing the short-term financing bonds and medium-term notes in the inter-bank bond market and publicly issuing stock in the stock market. This paper furthered the research in political connection and firms’ performance. Moreover, it is of direct policy implications in exploiting market potentials in resources allocation.
摘要：俄罗斯的罪过概念总体上属于心理性罪过概念。目前学者们对罪过概念的理解呈多元的趋向。犯罪故意的认识对象是什么？主张违法性认识的学者趋于增多。疏忽过失是极具特点的过失种类，多数学者从规范特征（应当）和评价特征（能够）的结合上来把握疏忽过失，但也有学者试图揭示它的心理“谜底”。双重罪过形式的犯罪是富有俄罗斯特色的刑法制度，它的实质是故意犯罪和过失犯罪的想象竞合，其中后者是前者的加重要件。%As a whole, the concept of sin in Russia is a psychological concept, although it has included social contents such as social harmful behavior and social harmful result. At present, the scholastic concept appears to be multivariable. What is the recognition target of crime intention? There tends to be more scholars who insist on illegal recognition. Negligent fault is of special characteristics. Most scholars understand the negligent fault on the basis of combining normative feature (should) and evaluated feature (could), but some others answer it in terms of a psychological “riddle”. The form of dual sin is a sort of criminal law system full of Russian characteristics. Its substance is the imaginary combination of intentional crime and unpremeditated crime, while the latter is the aggravated element of the former.
摘要：In the literary theory and aesthetics research after 1949, Zhou Xian has formulated the literary discourse norms but also deconstructed the challenge of literary rules. He is consciously introducing vanguard western theories and meanwhile reflects on the introduction of the theoretical studies to social practices. It is in the literary criticism to cultural criticism, aesthetics to trans-aesthetics, and the experts to the amateur that Zhou Xian presents an image of such a cross-border impulse, wandering viewpoint, theoretical openness and critical intervention. His humanistic thoughts reveal the radical aesthetic edge and retain the rational judgment. He is a mental wanderer rather a spoiler in the system.%在新时期以来的文艺理论与美学研究中，周宪既是文艺学话语规范的建构者，也是挑战文艺规训的解构者；既是自觉引进西方前沿性理论的重要策划者，也是把理论研究引入社会生活实践的反思者。从文艺批评到文化批判，从美学到超美学，从专家到业余者，正是这种越界的冲动、游移的视点、理论的开放性和批判的介入精神，使周宪的人文思想既闪烁着激进的美学锋芒，又保留着理性批判的张力。与其说他是体制内生存的搅局者，不如说他是一位思想的漫游者。
摘要：从语义、语法入手，并联系中国道教文化，指出了《中华道藏》第八册在文献整理方面存在的一些问题，主要包括13例因不明文义造成的标点断句失误，如：“竟发标复”之“复”当属下读，“来久不立系天师之位”之“来久”当连上读，“素饭菜一日”之“一日”当连下读等。另有9例因形近或音近造成的文字讹误，如：“市”为“帀”之形讹，“肾”为“贤”之形误，“赌”为“覩”之误，“涿”当为“逐”，“寨”是“褰”之形讹，“慈”当作“兹”，“思”当作“恩”等。%In light of Chinese Taoist culture, this paper pointed out the mistakes existent in the eighth volume of Chinese Taoism Classics Collection in terms of semantics and grammar — 13 wrong sentence segmentations because of misinterpretation, such as the character“fu (复)”in the sentence of“竟发标复”must be parsed into the following sentence,“laijiu (来久)”in the sentence of“来久不立系天师之位”into the previous sentence, and “yiri (一日)” in the sentence of “素饭菜一日” into the following sentence; and 9 corrupted writings because of similar forms or pronunciations, such as “shi (市)” is the corrupted form of “za (帀)”,“shen (肾)” of “xian (贤)”,“du (赌)” of “du (覩)”, “zhuo (涿)”of “zhu (逐)”, “zhai (寨)” of“jian (褰)”, “ci (慈)”of“zi (兹)”and“si (思)”the corrupted form of“en(恩)”.
摘要：The wage is the primary embodiment of the social responsibility of the employer. In terms of the principle of law of obligation, the wage should be a kind of special debt and has its own particularity compared with the private debt and the public debt. It is a new class of debt — one in the social law category. Social debt, a legal relationship in social laws, is the socialized product of the combination between the desirable debt and the legal debt. With the development of society, some debts will gradually develop out of the paradigm of traditional private debt into the paradigm of social debts. In the paradigm applied to wage debt, analyses must be made from two aspects, its internal mechanism of wage protection and external priority and first principles.%从债法原理来看,工资应是一种特殊的债,与私法上的债和公法上的债相比较,具有特殊性,属于新的债类——社会法上的债的范畴.社会债是社会法中的一种法律关系范畴,是合意之债与法定之债结合的社会化产物,并且随着社会的发展,一些债会逐渐摆脱传统私债的范式向社会债的范式发展.在工资债的法律适用范式上,应从其内部建设欠薪保障金和外部的优先原则、先行原则两个方面来分析.
摘要：城市化背景下,少数民族乡村家庭的家庭结构,家庭人员的生活观念、生活方式都在发生着变化,家庭中父母对子女进行文化影响的内容、方式以及作用也随之发生着改变.基于此,文章认为城市化背景下的少数民族乡村家庭应充分发挥家庭教育的文化传承、选择功能,从而树立文化自觉意识.%In the process of urbanization, the structure, life concepts and the way of lifestyles have been changing in the ethnic minority family. Accordingly, the content, method and effect of parental cultural influence on their children change. This paper held that the ethnic minority family should give full play to the cultural inheritance and the selection of family education in the process of urbanization. The family should also guide the children to learn and establish their cultural awareness.
摘要：With the development of the permanent strategic cooperative partnership between Russia and Kazakhstan, the two countries have continuously expanded the area of bilateral economic cooperation. They have signed a series of treaties and agreements in the economic area, which laid a solid law foundation for and promoted their economic cooperation. In the 21st century, their bilateral trade turnover is increasing continuously and their mutual investment is expanding rapidly. Their economic cooperation has acquired remarkable achievements. Despite some restricting factors existing in the process of cooperation, their economic cooperation will be deepened and expanded further owing to the existence of their unified historical economic system, the emphasis made by both presidents and their joint efforts.%伴随着俄罗斯和哈萨克斯坦永久战略伙伴关系的发展,两国经济领域合作不断扩大.双方签署了一系列经济领域的条约和协议,为经济合作奠定了坚实的条约法律基础,促进了两国间的经济合作.进入新世纪,双边贸易额不断增加,相互投资迅速扩大,俄哈经济合作取得了令人瞩目的成就.虽然在合作的过程中,存在着一定的制约因素,但是基于俄哈之间历史上统一经济体系的存在、两国总统对经济合作的重视以及双方的共同努力,两国在经济领域的合作将进一步扩大和深化.
摘要：Being a branch of the Tang Dynasty poetry, Zen poems are of 'literature' and 'Zen' and is a special creation blending religion (Zen) with literature (poetry). "Voidness" manifest in the Tang Dynasty poems is expressed in aspects of scenery, rationality and mind, each of which has its own unique denotation. As a result, the Zen poetry presents itself with features of diverse poetic flavor, vague linguistic expressions, and ethereal artistic conception, which greatly enriches the artistic charm of the Tang Dynasty poetry.%唐代文人禅诗作为唐诗的一个分支,是"文学",也是"禅学",是一种融通宗教(禅宗)与文学(诗歌)的特殊创作.唐代文人禅诗对"空"的书写表现为禅景空、禅理空和禅心空三个方面,并且具有独特的蕴含,最终使得唐代文人禅诗呈现出诗意多样、语言朦胧、意境空灵等特色,丰富了唐诗的艺术魅力.
摘要：The teacher professional knowledge and skills, and the trust between teachers, relationship structure and content play an important role in students' performance. Having analyzed the development of teacher's human capital and social capital, this paper showed that teachers' human capital with a specific environment, tasks and other social capital indicators will have a significant impact on the improvement of student performance. In terms of social capital, the relationship of the number and quality between teachers, and of the number and the quality between teachers and the direct supervisors will affect the performance of the student. In addition, the cross-level interaction research shows that a close tie between the team social capital and individual human capital is helpful to improve student performance.%教师所具有的专业知识和技能、以及教师之间信任水平、关系结构和内容在学生表现中起着重要作用,通过分析教师人力资本和社会资本共同开发,研究表明,具有特定环境、任务和其它一些社会资本指标教师的人力资本将对学生表现的改善产生显著影响.就社会资本而言,教师之间横向关系数量和质量、教师和直接上级之间纵向关系数量和质量都会影响学生表现.此外,跨层面关系互动研究表明,团队社会资本和个体人力资本关系密切有助于改善学生表现.
摘要：古代新疆汉族学习使用当地其他民族语言,是中原王朝与西域其他民族保持政治联系的需要,同时也是汉族与其他民族在经济文化生活方面密切往来的必然结果.%In ancient Xinjiang, the Han people learned and used other local ethnic minority languages out of the needs for the political relations between inland China and the other peoples in the Western Region. That was also the inevitable result of the economic and cultural close contacts between the Han and ethnic minority peoples.
摘要：巴基斯坦是中国"全天候战略伙伴",但是近年来巴基斯坦国内局势不稳定,中国在巴基斯坦发展迅速的海外利益已经成为宗教极端势力的袭击目标,他们将袭击中国在巴利益视为是间接打击巴政府的有效手段.为了进一步维护和拓展两国共同利益,我国需要加强与美国及巴当地社会的合作,并积极发挥智库、民间组织等的作用.%China and Pakistan are all-weather strategic partners and China has extensive overseas interests in Pakistan. Owing to the unstable situation in Pakistan, China's oversea interests in Pakistan have become the targets of religious extremists and separatists. They use the attacks as a means to hit the Pakistan government indirectly. In order to protect China's overseas interests in Pakistan, China must cooperate with U.S. and Pakistani local communities. Besides, think tanks and NGOs could play import roles.
摘要：As the two main expressions in the human world, language and image maintain a dynamic process. The image expression leads the relationship between language and image to tension in the modern visual art, which causes the graphical supremacy, with the deep departmentalism of language behind it. However, the lack of the single expression pattern in the modern visual text promotes the integration of lan-guage narrative and image narrative. The normal mechanism of cross-contextual expression, the expanding indication scope, the strengthening dynamic image expression and evolution the aesthetic cognitive schema in the modern visual text repositions the relationship between language and image, which breeds a profound rational thinking.%语言与图像的关系呈现出一种动态的衍化进程.现代视觉艺术中图像主导的表意路径将语言与图像的关系导向紧张,其引发的"图像霸权"论背后杂糅着深刻的语言本位主义思维.然而,现代视觉文本单一表意模式的不足推动了语言与图像叙事体例的弥合与一体化,现代视觉文本跨语境表意的常态机制、指涉范围的扩展、图像表意动态性的加强以及审美认知图式的嬗变无疑为现代视觉艺术中语图关系的重新定位提供了更为深刻的理性思考.
摘要：Schema theory, an important branch of cognitive psychology, means to interpret cognitive phenomena. The understanding by the interpreter is to construct adequate psychological representations in the cognitive processes in accordance with the source text and the sum total of the schemata in his mind. This paper analyzes the combining process of schema and interpretation and explores the mechanism and function of schema in interpretation.%图式理论是认知心理学的重要分支,旨在解释人类的一些认知现象.根据心理语言学理论,口译中的理解就是译员依据原文和自身头脑中的图式总和,通过认知过程创建充分的心理表征.文章以汉英会议口译为研究对象,以图式理论为指导,分析图式理论与口译过程的有机结合,探究图式在口译理解中发挥作用的机制和原理,以提高译员的语言综合运用能力.
摘要：将技术创新理论与生态理念相结合,以求提高资源生产率、减少对环境造成的污染,是实现经济、能源、环境良性循环的必然选择.由于传统的DEA模型无法有效的解决存在非期望产出的情况下的效率评价问题,因此,采用非径向—双目标DEA的方法分别以废气排放总量、废水排放总量、工业用水量、能源消耗总量为非期望产出建立了中国各省区的绿色创新效率测度模型,利用Lingo软件选择了中国30个省区绿色创新效率,得出位于绿色创新效率前沿面的主要是东部发达地区,中部、西部地区的绿色创新效率较低;其次,运用空间计量的方法进一步研究了影响中国绿色创新效率提高的环境因素,提出要提高绿色创新效率的路径,即进一步加大对创新效率的资金投入,尤其是鼓励企业自发性的进行技术创新;加大对环境保护的监管力度;吸引技术含量高、低污染、低能耗的外商企业进行投资等建议.%To combine the theory of technological innovation with the ecology concept to increase resource productivity and reduce environmental pollution is the inevitable choice in realizing the virtuous circle of economy, energy and environment. The traditional DEA model cannot effectively solve the efficiency evaluation under conditions of undesirable output. This paper, applying the non-radial-double objective DEA model, established an undesired output model to measure the green innovation efficiency in China's 30 provinces in terms of the total emissions, the total amount of wastewater, the industrial water consumption and the total energy consumption. The Lingo software was used to estimate the green innovation efficiency in China (excluding Tibet). The result showed that the green innovation efficiency was higher in the eastern provinces, and lower in central and western provinces. The spatial econometric approach was applied to assess the influence of the environmental factors on the green innovation efficiency. This paper proposed effective approaches to the improvement of the green innovation efficiency — increase the funding for the innovation efficiency (enterprises, in particularly, must be encouraged to engage in spontaneous technological innovations), strengthen the supervision of the environmental protection, and attract FDI which is of high technology, low pollution, and low energy consumption.
摘要：Based on the data of CGSS2010, this paper examined factors in voting participation in Chinese democratic election at the grassroots level by applying a logistic regression model. The results showed that the variables such as the differences between urban and rural areas, age, gender, education, political identity, political attention and trust in government maintained a positive correlation with residents' voting participation. The Social Economic Status Model did not fit the situation of Chinese grassroots election. To promote the voting participation, this paper proposed that CPC party members and activists be effective in political mobilization and enhance resident's attention. The reform of the governance mechanism of grass-roots government must be accelerated to enhance resident's political trust in local governments.%基于中国综合社会调查(CGSS2010)的数据,利用Logistic回归模型检视了当前中国城乡基层民主选举中的投票参与行为的影响因素.结果表明:城乡差别、年龄、性别、受教育程度、政治身份、政治关注度和政府信任等变量与居民的投票参与行为显著相关.社会经济地位模型并不适用于中国城乡基层民主选举.同时指出从两个方面促进基层民主选举中居民的投票参与:一是依托党员和积极分子进行有效的政治动员,同时提升居民的政治关注度;二是加快基层政府治理体制改革,提升居民对基层政府的政治信任.
摘要：Japanese pirates harassed the Chinese and Korean coastal areas for a long time. To fight against the invasion of Japanese pirates, Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang built military garrisons on the coastal areas and large-scale warships. Xie Si and Xie Changshou of the Xie's family members were sent on diplomatic missions on behalf of the Ming Dynasty and Korea government respectively and engaged in affairs of resisting Japanese pirates, Xie Changshou also trained Japanese translators, which laid the foundation for the two country alliance to fight against the Japanese pirates. Influenced by Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang, Xie Changshou's book, "The Memorial to the Throne on Resisting the Japanese Pirates", is a reflection of his thought on resisting the Japanese pirates, and thus has great values.%倭寇袭扰明朝和高丽滨海地区由来已久.针对倭寇的侵扰,朱元璋在沿海地区广建卫所,大修战船.偰氏家族成员偰斯、偰长寿分别代表明朝和高丽出使,在外交活动中都交涉御倭事务,偰长寿还培养了倭通事,为两国联合抗击倭寇打下基础.偰长寿的《御倭奏疏》受朱元璋影响,是他御倭思想的体现,颇具价值.
摘要：杨义的学术研究具有会通与专精共存的特点,他著史贯通中国现代文学与中国古典文学两大范畴,自成一家;提出的中国叙事学理论体系和中国古典诗学"生命—文化—感悟"多维特质的创见,明确淬炼出了中国文学理论的文化专利权与理论原创性;以学术史的材料作方法论的文章,系统阐明了中国现代学术方法通论"双构四点一基础"的总体特色;提出的"重绘中国文学地图"的命题,既为现代中国创设了一种与时俱进的文学学理体系,也为中华文化搭建了一个更加深层、本质的文学解释空间.%Yang Yi's academic research is characterized by his comprehensiveness and specialization. His historical studies include both Chinese modern literature and Chinese classical literature. His new viewpoint of the Chinese narrative theory system and the multi-dimensional characteristic of Chinese classical poetics evidently extracts the cultural patency and originality out of Chinese literary theory. Using the material of academic history, he systematically expounds the overall features of modern methods in China. His proposition of "redrawing the map of Chinese literature" not only provides modern China with a keeping-pace-with-the-times literary system, but also creates a deeper, essential literary interpretation space for Chinese culture.
摘要："Bi-er" (比尔) emerged and was mainly used as a temporal adverb in Medieval Chinese to represent future tense and can be translated as"not long after"or"soon after". Different from the evolution of "Heng-er" (恒尔), "Zheng-er" (正尔), "Dun-er" (顿尔), "Pie-er" (瞥尔), "Hui-er" (会尔), "Ou-er" (偶尔),"Bi-er"(比尔) was the result of lexicalization rather than the structure of a temporal adverb plus a su?x. It is also found that"Bi"(比) indicated the past tense being an adverb and the future tense being a preposition when it was used to express time-related meanings. "Er" (尔) expressed time when used as the adverbial su?x.%"比尔"作为表将来的时间副词,形成和主要使用于中古汉语时期,可译为"不久、很快".与"恒尔、俄尔、正尔、顿尔、瞥尔、忽尔、会尔、偶尔"等"～尔"类词语的衍生机制不同,不是由时间副词"比"加词尾"尔"构成,而是介词短语词汇化的结果.考察过程中还发现:"比"表示与时间相关的意义时,其副词用法表过去,介词用法表将来,两者有较清晰的划分;"尔"作副词词尾时,只作时间副词的词尾.
摘要：Observing the development of the relevant structures, this paper revealed the generation of causative compounds and the impact on the causative construction. It concluded that the caused-motion construction declined in the Han Dynasties, affected by vocabulary disyllablization, and the serial verb con-struction was increasing a great deal. Some of the serial verb construction evolved into causative compounds. New bi-functional constituent constructions such as"da ru kou po"(打汝口破) was fewer and developed slowly, which produced no direct influence on the formation of the early causative compounds.%通过对相关句式此消彼长的动态的考察,窥探使成式的产生时代及其对使成式产生的影响.结论是:两汉时期使动式衰退的同时,受词汇复音化的影响,连动式大量增加,其中一部分被重新分析为使成式."打汝口破"之类的新兼语式用例较少、发展缓慢,对早期使成式的形成没有直接的影响.
摘要：This paper analyzed the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate value with the application of Random Effects Model to the Xinjiang listed companies from 2003 to 2013 from the perspective of ecological civilization to construct a comprehensive evaluation index of CSR. The results showed that the fulfillment of corporate ecological economy responsibilities, ecological market responsibilities, and ecological environmental responsibilities has a significant positive correlation with the corporate value. The fulfillment of the corporate responsibilities for the employee and the government also played a positive role in enhancing corporate value.%文章以2003—2013 年新疆上市企业为研究对象,基于生态文明视角,构建社会责任综合指标,并运用随机效应模型,对企业社会责任与企业价值间的关系进行了实证检验.结果发现,企业生态经济责任、生态市场责任、生态环境责任的履行与企业价值显著正相关;同时,生态基础责任中企业对员工、政府责任的履行也对企业价值的提升起到了积极作用.
摘要：The minimum purchase price policy and the target price subsidy policy are the two important means of price policies implemented in agriculture in China. This paper holds that the adjustment of subsidy policy in the future is to replace the minimum purchase price policy with the target price subsidy policy. Right now, different policies should be taken to different agricultural products — the minimum purchase price policy should be adopted for products important to food security, and the target price subsidy policy should be gradually implemented for products that are of higher commodity rate such as soybean and cotton and that are not very important and pressing for food security. Multiple factors must be considered in the process of target price policy designing, and related policies must be implemented prudently.%最低收购价政策和目标价格政策是我国农业国内价格政策的两种重要形式.文章首先阐述最低收购价政策和目标价格政策的原理;其次从对生产者利益的保护效果、对市场的干预程度、补贴效率以及对加工企业和消费者的影响四个方面来分析二者的不同.文章认为,由最低收购价政策转向目标价格政策是今后补贴政策调整的方向.但是在当前对于不同农产品应采取差别化的政策方式,即对关系国计民生的口粮要坚持最低收购价政策,对大豆、棉花等其它商品率较高、对粮食安全问题作用显得不那么特别突出和紧迫的农产品可逐步试行目标价格政策;在目标价格政策的设计中要综合考虑多重因素、政策执行过程要积极稳妥.