摘要：教学实践智慧是教师具有的教学理念与师德、教学实践知识和能力所达到的一种综合性品质、状态与境界，是上述各构成要素的有机综合与凝结升华。其中，教学理念与师德是教师教学实践智慧的价值取向与道德基础；教学实践知识是教师教学实践智慧的认知基础；教学实践能力是教师教学实践智慧的技能基础。在对教学实践智慧生成机制释义的基础上，分析了教师教学实践智慧的生成要素与生成途径，阐述了教师教学实践智慧生成的三个阶段。%Teachers’ teaching practical wisdom refers to a comprehensive quality, status and state that teachers could achieve by virtue of their teaching ideas as well as teacher’s professional ethics, teaching practical knowledge and teaching practical ability. Teachers’ teaching practical wisdom is an organic integration and refined sublimation constituted of these elements mentioned above. Among them, teaching ideas and teacher’s professional ethics refer to value orientation and moral foundation of teachers’ teaching practical wisdom; teaching practical knowledge serves as its cognitive basis; and teaching practical ability serves as its technical base. Based on the interpretation of teaching practice wisdom generating mechanism, the paper makes an analysis of the generating elements and generating way of teaching practice wisdom, and proposes the three generating stages of teaching practice wisdom. Teaching practical wisdom is limitless and worthwhile for teachers to pursue eternally.
摘要：文章选取2008年金融危机发生前后的产业指数数据，采用三元VAR-GARCH(1,1)-BEKK模型分析由煤炭、电力、制造企业构成的三级供应链风险传染效应。研究表明：制造企业与电力企业存在双向风险传染效应，电力企业风险只能单向传染给煤炭企业，煤炭企业风险能单向传染给制造企业。供应链成员企业之间的风险双向及跳跃式传染会加剧供应链整体风险，要求成员企业协同分析与控制风险。%Based on the data of industry indexes before and after the financial crisis in 2008, this paper uses VAR-GARCH(1,1)-BEKK model to analyze risk contagion effect in a three-level supply chain composed of coal enterprises, power enterprises and manufacturing enterprises. The result shows that there exist a bi-directional risk contagion effect between manufacturing enterprises and power enterprises, a one-way risk contagion effect from power enterprises to coal enterprise, also one from coal enterprises to manufacturing enterprises. Seeing that bi-directional and salutatory risk contagion among supply chain members will intensify the overall risk of supply chain, those member enterprises are demanded to cooperatively analyze and control risks.
摘要：More and more practices have found that business model innovation has become another critical carrier of firms to achieve competition strategy. However, its theoretical research is just beginning. This paper discussed the mechanism of business model innovation from an innovative view of complementary assets and found thatasset complementarity is positively associated with novelty and negatively associated with efficiency of business model. The implication is that firms should, on one hand, protect exclusively novelty of business model stemmed from asset complementarity by establishing favorable position in specific assets or developing dynamic configuration capability of complementary assets; on the other hand, alleviate or compensate for the efficiency loss of business model caused by asset complementarity by enhancing mutual trust, bettering communication and employing new technologies.%越来越多的企业实践发现，商业模式创新已经成为了企业实现其竞争战略的重要手段，但对商业模式创新的理论研究才刚刚起步。本文创新性地从互补资产的视角切入，通过实证研究发现了在商业模式创新的背景下，中心企业与外部合作者的资产互补性有利于商业模式新颖性而不利于商业模式效率性。本文的实践指导意义在于，企业既需要独占性地保护由资产互补性带来的商业模式新颖性，如通过在专用性资产上建立有利位置或培养对互补资产进行动态配置的能力；又需要通过增进互信、完善沟通、应用技术等间接手段来缓解或弥补由资产互补性带来的商业模式效率性的损失。
摘要：在以往的企业成长研究中，股权结构等制度因素被忽视，不同性质的最终控制人下股权结构的企业成长效应更是缺少实证支持。本文以具备金字塔型股权结构的上市公司为样本，按最终控制人的性质对股权结构的企业成长效应进行了分组分析。研究结果表明：民营上市公司的终极股东制衡度具有显著的负向效应，直接股权制衡度对控制层级的负向效应具有显著的强化作用。地方控制的上市公司的控制权比例具有显著的正向效应，控制权与现金流权的分离程度具有显著的负向效应；直接股权制衡度对控制层级的正向效应具有显著的抑制作用，直接股权制衡度和终极股东制衡度对控制链条数量的负向效应具有显著的强化作用。中央控制的上市公司的控制权与现金流权的分离程度具有显著的负向效应，直接股权制衡度对控制层级的正向效应具有显著的强化作用。这为针对不同产权性质的企业从股权结构的角度寻求企业成长提供了重要的启示。%The system factors such as ownership structure are ignored in the past researches on firm growth, however, there is even lack of empirical support for ownership structure’s effect on firm growth under ultimate controllers with different nature. Using listed companies with pyramid ownership structure as samples, the ownership structure’s effect on firm growth is empirically tested respectively according to the nature of ultimate controllers. The results indicate that private listed companies’ ultimate shareholders balance has significantly negative effect, but direct equity balance has significantly strengthening effect on control layers’ negative effect. State-owned listed companies’ control ratio has significantly positive effect, but the separation of ultimate control and cash flow rights has significantly negative effect; direct equity balance has significantly inhibiting effect on control layers’ positive effect, but direct equity balance and ultimate shareholders balance have significantly strengthening effect on the number of control chains’ negative effect. Central listed companies’ separation of ultimate control and cash flow rights has significantly negative effect, but direct equity balance has significantly strengthening effect on control layers’ positive effect. It is helpful for firms with different property natures to achieve growth from the standpoint of ownership structure.
摘要：国际法律文件、国家实践和学界评论共同证实了：风险预防尚不构成国际环境法的一般法律原则。风险预防在国际水法法律文件、司法实践中尚没有明确的法律地位，但在各国已产生了较深入的影响。我国在利用境内国际河流水资源时，应尽可能地早规划、采用最先进的国际技术，积极参与国际合作开发与综合治理，减少环境风险和生态影响。%International legal documents, state practices and scholar comments prove that Precautionary principle hasn’t yet constituted a general legal principle in the international environmental law. Precautionary principle hasn’t hadexplicit legal statusin the international water law, but it has had a profound influence on the countries of the world. When developing water resources of the international river in our country, we should plan as early as possible, employ the most advanced international technique and take an active part in the international joint development and comprehensive control in order to decrease environmental risks and ecological effects.
摘要：对于个人信息保护的规范，肇始于少数关系个人信息秘密的行业伦理规范，总体上经历了从特殊行业伦理规范到一般人格权规范，再到晚近出现的具体人格权益如隐私权规范，进而向新型具体人格权之个人信息权规范的发展进路。美欧关于个人信息利益规范进路的区别体现为：立法理论根基、法律传统不同，是否以正面立法规制为主导不同，是否集中、统一立法不同，个人信息保护的范围不同等。%The norms for personal information protection begin with several industrial ethic standards related to personal information secretes, generally experiencing the special industrial ethical norms, ordinary right of personality norms and newly emerging specific rights and interests of personality norms, like privacy right and developing towards personal information right norms of new-type specific right of personality. The differences of American and European personal information benefits norms are represented by different legislation theory foundation and legal traditions, different positive legislative regulations domination, different central and universal legislation and different personal information protection scope, etc.
摘要：The European Central Bank's sovereign bond buying program is being questioned in the euro area. On the one hand, in the current stage, the European Central Bank's sovereign bond purchase is an essential rescue program. On the other hand, the European Central Bank's sovereign bond buying power does exist illegal factors. It is worth noting that European Court of justice, in the case of June 2015, interprets the European Central Bank's two-market sovereign bonds as a legitimate act, completing the legalization process of the European Central Bank's sovereign bond buying power in the form of judgment. However, some problems still exist in the legal practices.%面对欧元区主权债务危机，欧洲央行提出的主权债券购买计划受到了合法性质疑，一方面现阶段欧洲央行的主权债券购买计划是必不可少的救市方案，另一方面欧洲央行的主权债券购买权的确存在违法因素。值得注意的是，欧洲法院在2015年6月的案件判决中将欧洲央行二级市场的主权债券购买解释为合法行为，完成了以判决的形式使欧洲央行主权债券购买权合法化的过程，但法律实践中的一些问题仍然存在。
摘要：The democratic consultation bears theoretical and realistic significance for the university trade unions to fully play their functions and to promote grassroots democracy. The paper focuses its study on how to build a democratic consultation mechanism within the trade union. Studies show that it is essential for the university trade unions to enforce democratic consultation because it is essential not only to the scientific and harmonious development of the university, but to the promotion of democracy at the grassroots level and the trade union itself. The democratic consultation within the university involves two major aspects, democratic administration and safeguard of the legitimate rights of the faculty. The democratic consultation could be achieved through different routes. The paper compared and analyzed seven routes of them and proposed that democratic consultation should be guaranteed from aspects like notion, atmosphere, organization, competence, and methods, ect.%高校工会组织构建民主协商机制对于充分发挥工会组织职能，丰富国家基层民主建设具有重要的理论和现实意义。本文研究了高校工会组织如何构建民主协商机制。研究表明：高校工会组织构建民主协商机制对于促进高校科学和谐发展，推进国家基层民主建设以及自身建设具有重要意义。在民主协商的内容上主要包括校园民主管理和维护教职工合法权益两个方面，在民主协商路径上具有多种选择，本文主要对七种路径进行了分析。在民主协商机制保障条件上，提出应在观念、环境、组织、能力和方法等方面给予保障。