【摘要】In 2003, our research group in Osaka University was selected as one of the "21st Century COE Programs" supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. We formed the "Center for Atomistic Fabrication Technology" to promote the development of surface creation systems in order to realize nanometer-level accuracy. I here introduce the "atomistic fabrication technology" and our 21st Century COE Program. The realization of specific types of optical or electronic devices with atomic-level accuracy frequently is a key factor in achieving breakthrough in basic sciences and advanced industries of the 21st century. Examples of such optical devices are ultraprecise mirrors that are used for X-ray free electron lasers, hard-X-ray microscopes and extreme-ultraviolet lithography. Next-generation silicon-on-insulator devices and wide-band-gap semiconductor SiC or GaN devices are examples of electronic devices. It is impossible to fabricate these extremely precise "products" by extending conventional manufacturing technologies, even if such technologies were improved and made sophisticated on the basis of experience. To fabricate the new devices required in pioneering fields, it is necessary to develop new concepts for manufacturing technologies, which we call "atomistic fabrication technology", on the basis of science itself.