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Just War, Cyber War, and the Concept of Violence

机译:正义战争,网络战争和暴力观念

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Recent debate on the relationship between cyber threats, on the one hand, and both strategy and ethics on the other focus on the extent to which ‘cyber war’ is possible, both as a conceptual question and an empirical one. Whether it can is an important question for just war theorists. From this perspective, it is necessary to evaluate cyber measures both as a means of responding to threats and as a possible just cause for using armed kinetic force. In this paper, I shift the focus away from ‘war’ as such in order to ask whether some cyber threats might justifiably be characterized as a form of ‘violence.’ Some theorists argue that the term violence ought to be defined so as to encompass things like ‘structural’ harm or harm by neglect and thereby question implicitly the focus of just war theorists on armed force. This paper draws on a theory of violence I developed elsewhere as a defence of just war theory’s narrow understanding of violence. According to the ‘Double-Intent’ theory, a distinctive form of ‘Violent Agency’ is the factor uniting the category of violence while partly accounting for the peculiar moral connotations of the term. Here, I argue that the resulting definition of violence reshapes the category in a way that includes some forms of cyber-attack. This may help us to see where cyber might fit in relation to just war theory and the ethics of kinetic attack.
机译:一方面,最近关于网络威胁之间的关系的辩论,另一方面是战略和道德方面的争论,侧重于“网络战争”可能发生的程度,这既是一个概念性问题,也是一个经验性问题。对于战争理论家来说,能否做到是一个重要的问题。从这个角度出发,有必要评估网络措施,既作为应对威胁的手段,又是使用武装动能的可能正当理由。在本文中,我将焦点从“战争”转移开来,以询问某些网络威胁是否有理由被描述为“暴力”形式。一些理论家认为,应将“暴力”一词定义为涵盖诸如“结构性”损害或疏忽损害之类的事物,从而隐含地质疑了正义战争理论家对武装部队的关注。本文借鉴了我在其他地方开发的暴力理论,以捍卫战争理论对暴力的狭narrow理解。根据“双重意图”理论,“暴力代理”的一种独特形式是将暴力类别统一在一起的因素,同时部分说明了该术语的特殊道德含义。在这里,我认为对暴力的最终定义通过某种形式的网络攻击重塑了这一类别。这可能有助于我们了解与战争理论和动能攻击伦理相关的网络可能适合的领域。

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