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Deep and Extreme Child Poverty in Rich and Poor Nations: Lessons from Atkinson for the Fight Against Child Poverty

机译:富国和穷国中的极端和极端儿童贫困:阿特金森在打击儿童贫困方面的经验教训

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The paper documents child poverty levels and trends using both relative ('deep') and absolute ('extreme') measures in two clusters: Anglo-Saxon high-income countries and upper middle-income countries. We also investigate the influence of different components of household income and other resources on child deep-poverty rates to examine the role of the market and the redistributive effects that materialize through private transfers, public benefits, and tax systems on generating poverty reduction. Overall, middle-income nations have witnessed continuous reductions in their extreme child poverty rates, while mild decreases or fluctuations have been observed in the five high-income nations, with the US highlighted by its relatively high rates of deep and extreme poverty regardless of absolute or relative measures and type of equivalence scale used. Private institutions play a larger role in poverty reduction in middle-income nations compared to its impact on developed nations. The degree of dependence on universal or assistance benefits varies among high-income nation. In the US, universal programs tend to be meager, while Australian social insurance and universal benefit are robust in their fight against deep poverty. Brazil stands out by its overwhelmingly large proportion of social insurance programs that contribute to improvements of its deep child poverty situation, and South Africa's assistance benefit system performs better in lifting children out of deep poverty.
机译:该文件使用两个类别的相对(“深度”)和绝对(“极端”)措施记录了儿童贫困水平和趋势,这两个类别是:盎格鲁-撒克逊人高收入国家和中上收入国家。我们还调查了家庭收入和其他资源的不同组成部分对儿童深贫困率的影响,以检验市场的作用以及通过私人转移,公共利益和税收制度对减贫产生的再分配效应。总体而言,中等收入国家的极端儿童贫困率不断下降,而五个高收入国家的贫困率则有所下降或波动,其中美国的深层和极端贫困率相对较高,无论其绝对或使用的相对量度和等价量表的类型。与对发达国家的影响相比,私人机构在中等收入国家的减贫中起着更大的作用。高收入国家对普遍福利或援助福利的依赖程度各不相同。在美国,普遍计划往往微不足道,而澳大利亚的社会保险和普遍福利在与深层贫困作斗争时表现强劲。巴西以其极大比例的社会保险计划脱颖而出,这些计划有助于改善其严重的儿童贫困状况,而南非的援助福利制度在使儿童摆脱严重的贫困方面表现更好。

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