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    Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE Transactions on

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  • ISSN: 1524-9050
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  • 机译 数字图像的空间分辨率和色彩对车辆分类影响的综合研究
    摘要:Vehicle-type classification is considered a core module for many intelligent transportation applications, such as speed monitoring, smart parking systems, and traffic analysis. In this paper, many vision-based classification techniques were presented relying only on a digital camera without the need for any extra hardware components. Dimension and color are two important characteristics of any digital image that affect the cost of the digital camera used in the image acquisition. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of the effect of these two characteristics on the vehicle classification process in terms of accuracy and performance. We apply a set of different state-of-the-art image classifiers to the BIT-Vehicle and LabelMe data sets. Each data set is downscaled into different scales to generate a variety of spatial resolutions of each data set. Besides, we examine the effect of color by converting each color version to a gray-scale one. At last, we draw a valid conclusion in regards to the impact of these two characteristics (i.e., dimension and color) on the classification accuracy and performance of the image classification methods using more than 46 000 individual experiments. Experimental results show that there is no significant influence of both color and spatial resolutions of the vehicle images on the classification results obtained by most state-of-the-art image classification methods. However, there is a correlation between the spatial resolution and the processing time required by most image classification methods. Our findings can play an important role in saving not only money, but also time for vehicle-type classification systems.
  • 机译 基于社区结构提取重要的手机交互模式
    摘要:Mobile phones have emerged as an essential part of people's lives. The data produced from them can be utilized to derive the spatio-temporal information of their users' whereabouts. We can obtain a rich data set of human activities, interactions, social relationships, and mobility. Hence, it has been possible to explore these information sources with applications ranging from disaster management to disease epidemiology. In this paper, we have focused on the use of call detail records to explore and interpret patterns embedded in interaction flows of people through their mobile phone calls. To do so, we consider the geographical context of subscribers/celltowers to discover structures of spatio-temporal interactions and communities' patterns in Macau. We have explored the inter and intra-polygon interaction flows. The results suggest that subscribers tend to communicate within a spatial-proximity community. In order to delineate relatively contiguous objects with similar attribute values, we have implemented an efficient hierarchical clustering approach. By identifying key objects and their close associates and exploring their communication patterns, we can detect shared interests and dominant interactions that influence societal patterns. Such insight is useful for resource optimization in network planning, content distribution, and urban planning.
  • 机译 通过出租车服务策略优化提高电动出租车的生存能力:纽约市的大数据研究
    摘要:Electrification of transportation is critical for a low-carbon society. In particular, public vehicles (e.g., taxis) provide a crucial opportunity for electrification. Despite the benefits of eco-friendliness and energy efficiency, adoption of electric taxis faces several obstacles, including constrained driving range, long recharging duration, limited charging stations, and low gas price, all of which impede taxi drivers' decisions to switch to electric taxis. On the other hand, the popularity of ride-hailing mobile apps facilitates the computerization and optimization of taxi service strategies, which can provide computer-assisted decisions of navigation and roaming for taxi drivers to locate potential customers. This paper examines the viability of electric taxis with the assistance of taxi service strategy optimization, in comparison with conventional taxis with internal combustion engines. A big data study is provided using a large data set of real-world taxi trips in New York City (NYC). Our methodology is to first model the computerized taxi service strategy by Markov decision process, and then obtain the optimized taxi service strategy based on NYC taxi trip data set. The profitability of electric taxi drivers is studied empirically under various battery capacity and charging conditions. Consequently, we shed light on the solutions that can improve viability of electric taxis.
  • 机译 空域流量程序的线性保持:延迟吸收和恢复的案例研究
    • 作者:Xu, Yan;Prats, Xavier;
    • 刊名:IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
    • 2019年第3期
    摘要:This paper presents a method to introduce linear holding to flights affected by the airspace flow program (AFP) initiatives. Trajectories are optimized at their planning stage in such a way that the program performance is improved in terms of delay absorption before the congested area, and delay recovery at the destination airport. This recovery process is studied by comparing the case where the same fuel consumption is fixed as the nominal flight, with several cases where some extra fuel allowances are considered at the flight planning stage. The effects for AFP delayed flights are thoroughly discussed in a case study followed by a sensitivity analysis on possible influential factors. Results suggest that using the proposed method could partially recover part of the AFP delay, even with no extra fuel allowances (e.g., reducing 3.3 min of ground delay and 1.7 min of arrival delay for a typical short-haul flight). When extra fuel is allowed, however, the maximum delay recovery increases up to 10 min for the studied case, which also proves to be more cost-efficient than current operations, when flight speed is increased after experiencing all delay on the ground.
  • 机译 交通信号设计的三类交通流特性的经验观察与公式
    摘要:Recognizing the popularity of scooters and buses in many developing countries and the significant impact of their physical maneuverability on the properties of mixed traffic flows, this study presents our findings from empirical observations of tri-class traffic flows, including the complex interactions among scooters, passenger cars, and buses from their discharging to the formation of stop queues at downstream intersections. Using camcorders mounted either on high-rise structures or drones, our empirical data include individual vehicles and their trajectories over time. Formulations based on empirical findings have also been proposed to model the behaviors of such tri-class flows on queue discharging, formation, lane choice in propagation, and filtering processes. Evaluations of field data, with respect to time-varying throughputs, queue clearance times, and queue length evolution, confirms the effectiveness of the proposed formulations. These can serve as the basis for developing mesoscopic tri-class flow simulation models or for designing signals for arterials plagued by such mixed flows.
  • 机译 基于多摄像机车辆检测的自动空车位管理系统
    摘要:This paper presents a multicamera system for vehicles detection and their corresponding mapping into the parking spots of a parking lot. Approaches from the state-of-theart system, which work properly in controlled scenarios, have been validated using small amount of sequences and without more challenging realistic conditions (illumination changes and different weather conditions). On the other hand, most of them are not complete systems, but provide only parts of them, usually detectors. The proposed system has been designed for realistic scenarios considering different cases of occlusion, illumination changes, and different climatic conditions; a real scenario (the International Pittsburgh Airport parking lot) has been targeted with the condition that existing parking security cameras can be used, avoiding the deployment of new cameras or other sensors infrastructures. For design and validation, a new multicamera data set has been recorded. The system is based on existing object detectors (the results of two of them are shown) and different proposed postprocessing stages. The results clearly show that the proposed system works correctly in challenging scenarios including almost total occlusions, illumination changes, and different weather conditions.
  • 机译 使用空间嵌入式网络和关联规则从出租车轨迹数据中发现频繁移动的路径
    • 作者:Yu, Wenhao;
    • 刊名:IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
    • 2019年第3期
    摘要:In view of the complex traffic flows, spatial interactions within a city exhibit the properties of dynamics, connectivity, and repeatability. This paper aims at mining spatial-temporal movement patterns from massive taxi trajectory data for discovering the inherent travel flow information within the urban system. Similar to the role of ocean circulation in a marine system, identifying the frequent paths and cycles of the travel flows within a city would be critical for understanding the principles behind the travel flow surfaces. Thus, we propose a multi-level method for the discovery of movement paths by incorporating the techniques of network analysis and association rules. Specifically, the proposed method begins by constructing a directed network on the subdivision of the study region, in which the node with geolocation represents the corresponding cell and the edge with weight represents the travel flow between neighboring cells. The method then adopts an extended label propagation clustering algorithm to identify frequent paths and cycles on the flow network within a specific time interval. Finally, to extract frequent paths during the whole time period, we also develop an association rules mining algorithm by modeling the edges as items and the paths in each time span as transactions. Experiment results demonstrate that our framework is able to effectively mine movement patterns in taxi trajectory data. Our results are expected to provide an avenue for further research, such as transportation planning and urban structure analysis.
  • 机译 评估专业车队高效驾驶计划的分析系统
    摘要:Interest in energy cost saving and in global warming have persuaded transport companies to apply measures to reduce fuel consumption. Efficient driving is one of the most employed solutions as it allows savings in fuel consumption of around 10% with a minimal investment. The drawback is that efficient driving is a learning process, and it greatly depends on the drivers' behavior, which in turn is closely related to their motivation. If drivers are not really involved or after some time their interest decreases, efficiency improvements would disappear. Thus, an efficient driving program should make drivers' motivation one of the main targets. One option could be the implementation of reward programs. However, these should be based on a clear individual evaluation process, as an unfair system could lead to discomfort, complaints, and repudiation. In this paper, we propose an analytic system, based on the detection of efficient and inefficient behavioral patterns, to evaluate the individual driver's progression in efficient driving with the aim of being the basis of a reward program. The system receives relevant, driving related, vehicle information every 1.5 s, allowing a precise searching of patterns. It has been tested successfully in 16 bus companies, analyzing the performance of 880 professional drivers. To accurately illustrate the analytic process, three detailed driver analyses have been included as a case study. Results of this applied research on the eco-driving field show that the proposed system identifies efficient and inefficient actions that are used to fairly evaluate the drivers' performance.
  • 机译 交叉口车辆和行人之间的通行权谈判
    摘要:The higher social attention and negotiation among road users while crossing the road is as much a challenge for self-driving cars as it is for pedestrians. Self-driving cars in their current state are not able to understand cues from other road users and are rather reactive to pedestrian behavior, which may result overall in a slower traffic flow. In this paper, a vehicle-pedestrian negotiation model is proposed describing the processing and exchange of negotiation cues from both parties in order to speed up the traffic flow. The motion strategy for the vehicle approaching the pedestrian is formulated in order to negotiate its best chance to pass first, a process that closely mimics the common scenarios of everyday negotiation on roads. Simulation results show an improvement in the overall travel time of the vehicles as compared with the current best practice behavior (always stop) of autonomous vehicles. The cost-benefit analysis of negotiation among both parties is also discussed in this paper.
  • 机译 节能驾驶:电动汽车的最佳速度曲线,实现交通的可持续发展
    摘要:This paper investigates the benefits of exploiting weather conditions for energy optimal driving. Optimization approaches are introduced that are based on the fact that weather-dependent speed profiles can save transportation energy, especially for electric transportation systems. Optimization models for both minimum transportation energy with travel time constraints and minimum travel time with transportation energy constraints are introduced and the resulting speed profiles are analyzed. Infinite dimensional optimization models are proposed for exact problem descriptions and approximate discretized convex models are derived for highly efficient solutions. The optimization tasks are formulated as a deterministic as well as a robust optimization problem, where weather conditions such as wind speed and rolling resistance effects are assumed to be known exactly or within uncertainty bounds. Simulations illustrate the utility of the proposed optimization models and demonstrate achievable efficiency improvements.
  • 机译 一种模拟交通流动力学的理论
    摘要:Similitude theory, particularly dimension analysis, is a common tool for testing scaled-down engineering models and is widely used in vehicle dynamics and other engineering fields. However, it is barely employed in scaling traffic flow dynamics. In this paper, dimension analysis is adopted to scale car-following dynamics. Under the guidance of the similitude theory, a scaled downvehicle test bed is built where seven cars are running on a circular track at a maximum speed initially and congestion emerges after a period of time. In other words, a phantom traffic jam appears in our similitude test bed without any bottlenecks. The fundamental diagrams drawn from the experimental results show that our test bed has the capability of generating traffic hysteresis that is commonly observed in the field. Therefore, the design of this test bed can be used to simulate traffic dynamics to a certain degree and will pave the way for scaled-down connected and automated vehicle systems development.
  • 机译 DOCTraMS:基于社区的分散式和脱机流量监控系统
    摘要:The constant increase in the number of accidents and traffic jams negatively impacts several areas, including the economy, environment, and health. Since most monitoring systems require high installation and maintenance costs, especially because they depend on a central element, systems based on decentralized infrastructure have emerged as an attractive option. However, these systems cannot guarantee the synchronization between the devices' clocks since there is no centralized element. This paper presents DOCTraMS, a system that monitors and disseminates traffic conditions using a decentralized infrastructure. On-board units and roadside units do not need to be interconnected or connected to a central computer. These elements exchange information to update their tables that describe the traffic conditions of each road segment. To validate DOCTraMS, we have implemented a real IEEE 802.11 b/g prototype at Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Campus. Moreover, we have simulated larger scenarios using NS-3 with traffic data from Sao Paulo, Brazil. When compared with a GPS, our system accuracy is higher than 90% in all scenarios.
  • 机译 用于CTCS-3列车控制系统车载设备的混合在线安全观察员
    摘要:The on-board equipment of Chinese Train Control System-3 (CTCS-3) plays a key role in protecting trains from over-speeding. Conventional over-speed protection methods monitor the speed at discrete time instants. However, the over-speed behavior between discrete time instants cannot be detected, which may cause potential risks. To address this problem, this paper proposes a hybrid safety observation method to monitor train speed throughout the operation. In the proposed method, the train behavior is modeled with a hybrid automata, which takes parameters that affect train movement into consideration. Train behavior in the next control cycles is predicted periodically by computing the reachable set of the model. The safety property set is obtained according to the runtime speed limits. The intersection check between the reachable set and safety property set is performed to decide whether train speed may exceed the speed limit in a short future period. A case study is presented to demonstrate the proposed method in action by using real engineering data from the Chinese railway industry. The results show that the observation method is feasible in verifying the violations of CTCS-3 on-board equipment safety properties.
  • 机译 大规模运输系统中短期交通量预测的混合模型
    摘要:The prediction of short-term volatile traffic becomes increasingly critical for efficient traffic engineering in intelligent transportation systems. Accurate forecast results can assist in traffic management and pedestrian route selection, which will help alleviate the huge congestion problem in the system. This paper presents a novel hybrid DTMGP model to accurately forecast the volume of passenger flows multi-step ahead with the comprehensive consideration of factors from temporal, origin-destination spatial, and frequency and self-similarity perspectives. We first apply discrete wavelet transform to decompose the traffic volume series into an appropriation component and several detailed components. Then we propose a more efficient tracking model to forecast the appropriation component and a novel Gaussian process model to forecast the detailed components. The forecasting performance is evaluated with real-time passenger flow data in Chongqing, China. Simulation results demonstrate that our hybrid model can achieve on average 20%-50% accuracy improvement, especially during rush hours.
  • 机译 混合自动机的车辆自动排路径规划与协同控制
    摘要:Cooperative driving systems may increase the utilization of road infrastructure resources through coordinated control and platooning of individual vehicles with the potential of enhancing both traffic safety and efficiency. Vehicle cooperative driving is essentially a hybrid system that is a combination of discrete events, i.e., the transition of discrete cooperative maneuvering modes, such as vehicle merging and platoon splitting, as well as continuous vehicle dynamics. In this paper, a novel hybrid system consisting of the discrete cooperative maneuver switch and the continuous vehicle motion control is introduced into a multi-vehicle cooperative control system with a distributed control structure, leading each automated vehicle to conduct path planning and motion control separately. The primary novelty of this paper lies in that it presents a control algorithm combining artificial potential field (APF) approach with model predictive control (MPC), and using the optimizer of the MPC controller to replace the gradient-descending method in the traditional APF approach. Such a method can accomplish both path planning and motion control synchronously. Second, based on hybrid automata, a cooperative maneuver switching model consisting of a system state set and a discrete maneuver transition rule is established for two discrete maneuvers in the cooperative driving system, i.e., single-vehicle cruising and multiple-vehicle platooning. Simulations in several typical traffic scenarios demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
  • 机译 铁路通信系统中基于测量的马尔可夫多链路信道建模
    摘要:Multi-link transmission is one of the promising communication techniques capable of improving system capacity and cell-edge user spectral efficiency in railway communication networks. The performance of multi-link transmission heavily depends on the propagation characteristics of radio channels, especially the correlation property between multiple radio channels. Thus, it is important to characterize the multi-link channel in railway communication networks. In this paper, extensive wideband measurements in a viaduct railway environment at 460 MHz with two base stations and one mobile station are performed. Large-scale parameters (LSPs), including large-scale fading, Ricean K-factor, delay spread, and angle spread, are extracted from the measurement data. Based on the measurements, auto-correlation and cross-correlation properties of each LSP are investigated. A Markov-based multi-link tapped-delay-line model for railway communications is established, where the Markov chains are introduced to model the birth and death state of multipath components in multi-link scenarios. Using the relationship between the correlation coefficients of complex random variables (RVs), the amplitude and the phase of taps with different delays are modeled as correlated RVs. The proposed channel model is implemented and validated with measurements.
  • 机译 SINet:用于车辆快速检测的尺度不敏感卷积神经网络
    摘要:Vision-based vehicle detection approaches achieve incredible success in recent years with the development of deep convolutional neural network (CNN). However, existing CNN-based algorithms suffer from the problem that the convolutional features are scale-sensitive in object detection task but it is common that traffic images and videos contain vehicles with a large variance of scales. In this paper, we delve into the source of scale sensitivity, and reveal two key issues: 1) existing RoI pooling destroys the structure of small scale objects and 2) the large intra-class distance for a large variance of scales exceeds the representation capability of a single network. Based on these findings, we present a scale-insensitive convolutional neural network (SINet) for fast detecting vehicles with a large variance of scales. First, we present a context-aware RoI pooling to maintain the contextual information and original structure of small scale objects. Second, we present a multi-branch decision network to minimize the intra-class distance of features. These lightweight techniques bring zero extra time complexity but prominent detection accuracy improvement. The proposed techniques can be equipped with any deep network architectures and keep them trained end-to-end. Our SINet achieves state-of-the-art performance in terms of accuracy and speed (up to 37 FPS) on the KITTI benchmark and a new highway dataset, which contains a large variance of scales and extremely small objects.
  • 机译 蓝牙查询过程在交通工程中的应用仿真
    摘要:In recent years, Bluetooth technology has been adapted for use as a sensor for measuring vehicle travel times along a segment of roadway. However, using the Bluetooth technology in advanced traffic management systems has been limited in part, because there is a lack of tools, such as simulation, to predict the behavior of the system before it is developed and deployed. A number of studies have been published describing the Bluetooth technology, inquiry, and pairing process. Most of these studies have focused on the simulation of the first successful inquiry and reduction of the pairing time. However, in many traffic sensing applications, Bluetooth detectors are designed to stay in the inquiry stage and will continuously perform inquiry scans. These detectors will not proceed to the paring stage and multiple inquiry scans may occur on each device during the time these devices remain in the detection zone of the detector. In this paper, we propose a simulation framework that considers multiple inquiry scans and the effect of distance from the detector on the inquiry process. The simulation model was calibrated and validated using the field data collected from two custom-built Bluetooth detectors. The simulation framework has been made into a simulation software tool entitled blue synthesizer, which can be combined with commercially available trafficion microsimulation models to evaluate the use of Bluetooth technology within advanced traffic management systems.
  • 机译 基于成对偏好学习的数据驱动空中交通排序模型
    摘要:The effective sequencing of arriving flights is the primary goal of air traffic management. Although various automated tools have been developed to support air traffic controllers, these tools do not accommodate the cognitive processes of the human controllers, which are necessary for application to actual operations. This paper proposes a new framework for predicting arrival sequences based on a preference learning approach that emulates the sequencing strategies of human controllers by learning from historical data. The proposed algorithm works in two stages: it first learns the pairwise preference functions between arrivals using a binomial logistic regression, and then it induces the total sequence for a new set of arrivals by comparing the score of each aircraft, which sums the pairwise preference probabilities. The proposed model is validated using historical traffic data at Incheon International Airport, and its performance is evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation and a dynamic simulation analysis.
  • 机译 空中交通冲突和碰撞概率估计的数学模型
    摘要:Increasing traffic demands and technological developments provide novel design opportunities for future air traffic management (ATM). In order to evaluate current air traffic operations and future designs, over the past decades, several mathematical models have been proposed for air traffic conflict and collision probability estimation. However, few comparative evaluations of these models with respect to their mathematical core exist. Such comparative evaluations are particularly difficult since different authors employ different model definitions, notations, and assumptions, even when using the same modeling techniques. The aim of this paper is: 1) to present the mathematical core of the existing approaches for air traffic conflict and collision probability estimation using the same body of notations and definitions; 2) to outline the advances in estimating the probability of air traffic conflict and collision using a unified mathematical framework; 3) to various air traffic applications and their use of directed mathematical models for air traffic conflict and collision probability estimation; and 4) to provide insight into the capabilities and restrictions of the mathematical models in the evaluation of future ATM designs.