Economics of Private Tutoring in Sri Lanka: A Phenomenological Study




Private Supplementary Tutoring (PST) or shadow education is defined as fee-based tutoring that provides supplementary instruction to children in academic subjects that they study in the mainstream education system. In Sri Lanka, free education is provided for all students from the primary stage to the first degree level of university. Fuelled by the extremely high competitiveness in main national examinations, private tutoring in the country has recorded a tremendous growth and it is widespread phenomenon in both urban and rural sectors. The main purpose of attending PST is to increase academic performance in national level examinations; however, the impact of PST on educational achievement is still in dispute. However, literature confirms the net negative gains may influence in shaping socio cultural norms in a country. Thus it is critical in understanding the economic burden and socio-cultural distortions made by this phenomenon beforehand in formulating or amending education policies yet a little attention is paid specially on the indirect cost of PST. Therefore the main objective of this study is to explore the roots and the indirect costs of PST in the country. The data for the current study has obtained from focus groups that were conducted in both rural and urban sectors in three districts: Colombo, Kalutara, Galle and Matara. Data were analyzed using qualitative approach. It was found a consensus among the participants on the negative economic impact of private tutoring on family income. It was well established that the majority of the students who attend PST are not able to get a balanced diet, sufficient sleep, active lifestyle and stress free mind which are needed for a healthy life. Conventional student teacher relationship is shown to be deteriorated by the PST bias cultural change and reduced level of social capital fall t is risk of fall the families into vulnerability. At the macro level, PST affects female labour force participation, vehicle fuel consumption, road congestion, risk of non commutable diseases among the young. Remedial measures to address the weakness of the formal education system; effective government interventions such as improving teacher qualities, providence of necessary resources to the schools and more specifically sufficient increase of teacher salaries, reducing the class size in public schools, adjusting school syllabuses into manageable level and regulating of PST are recommended.
机译:私人补习(PST)或影子教育被定义为基于费用的补习,可以为孩子们在主流教育系统中学习的学术科目提供补充指导。在斯里兰卡,从小学阶段到大学一级学位的所有学生均获得免费教育。在主要国家考试的极高竞争力的推动下,该国的私人补习取得了巨大的增长,在城市和农村地区都是普遍现象。参加PST的主要目的是提高国家水平考试的学术表现;但是,PST对教育成就的影响仍存在争议。但是,文献证实,净负面收益可能会影响一个国家的社会文化规范的形成。因此,在制定或修改教育政策之前,事先了解这种现象造成的经济负担和社会文化扭曲至关重要,但对PST的间接成本却特别注意。因此,本研究的主要目的是探索该国PST的根源和间接成本。当前研究的数据来自在三个地区(科伦坡,卡卢塔拉,加勒和马塔拉)的农村和城市部门进行的焦点小组研究。使用定性方法分析数据。参与者之间就私人补习对家庭收入的负面经济影响达成共识。众所周知,参加PST的大多数学生无法获得均衡饮食,充足的睡眠,积极的生活方式和无压力的身心,这是健康生活所必需的。 PST偏向文化变革,传统的学生教师关系恶化,社会资本下降的水平降低,这是使家庭陷入脆弱状态的风险。从宏观上看,PST影响女性劳动力的参与,车辆燃料消耗,道路拥堵以及年轻人中非传染性疾病的风险。解决正规教育制度薄弱的补救措施;建议采取有效的政府干预措施,例如提高教师素质,为学校提供必要的资源,尤其是充分提高教师薪水,减少公立学校的班级规模,将学校教学大纲调整为可管理的水平以及调整PST。



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