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The coming of history: Heidegger and Nietzsche against the present

机译:历史的到来:海德格尔和尼采反对现在

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Heidegger’s 1938–1939 seminar on Nietzsche’s On the Utility and Liability of History for Life continues Heidegger’s grand interpretation of Nietzsche as a metaphysical thinker of presence. Nietzsche’s conceptions forgetting, memory, and even life itself, according to Heidegger, are all complicit in the privileging of presence. Simultaneous with his seminar, Heidegger is also compiling the notebook, Die Geschichte des Seyns (The History of Beyng), 1938–1940, wherein he sketches his own conception of history. Examining Heidegger’s criticisms of Nietzsche in the light of his contemporaneous notebook allows us to articulate Heidegger’s concern for history and for “what has-been” (das Gewesene) as a thinking of the “coming” of being. For Heidegger, to exist historically is to exist as something sent, something arriving, as something that “comes” to us. This coming of history is an ontological determination of all that is, no longer construed as present-at-hand objects, but as always arriving, relational beings. After presenting Heidegger’s view of the coming of history, I return to Nietzsche’s Utility and Liability of History to draw attention to an aspect of his text that is neglected by Heidegger, that of the political. The concluding sections of Nietzsche’s text confront the politics of the present, in both senses of the genitive, in order to rally against the closure of society. In the conclusion to the paper, I turn to the political dimension of Nietzsche’s thinking of history with an eye to how it might elude Heidegger’s interpretation.
机译:海德格尔1938年至1939年关于尼采的“生命历史的效用和责任”研讨会上,海德格尔继续对尼采作存在形而上学思想家的宏大解释。根据海德格尔的说法,尼采的遗忘,记忆乃至生命本身的观念都与存在的存在密不可分。在他的研讨会的同时,海德格尔还正在编写笔记本,《 1938年至1940年的Beyng的历史》(Die Geschichte des Seyns),他在其中勾勒了自己的历史概念。鉴于海德格尔同时代的笔记本对海德格尔的批评,我们可以清楚地表达出海德格尔对历史和“已经发生的事情”(das Gewesene)的关注,即对“即将到来”的思考。对于海德格尔来说,历史上的存在就是作为某种事物存在,某种事物到达,某种事物“存在”给我们。历史的到来是对所有事物的本体论确定,这些事物不再被解释为现时的对象,而是像往常一样存在的关系性存在。在介绍了海德格尔对历史的到来的看法之后,我回到尼采的《历史效用和责任》,提请人们注意海德格尔所忽略的他的文本方面,即政治方面。尼采文本的最后部分从属格的两种角度来面对当前的政治,以团结起来反对社会的封闭。在本文的结论中,我将着眼于尼采对历史的思考的政治层面,着眼于它可能如何掩盖海德格尔的解释。

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