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The organic materials in the Five Northern Provinces' Assembly Hall: disclosing the painting technique of the Qing dynasty painters in civil buildings

机译:北方五省议会会议厅的有机材料:揭示清代民用建筑画家的绘画技术

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摘要

The beiwusheng huiguan ('Meeting hall of the Five Northern Dynasties') is a building complex from the Qing dynasty (1636-1912 AD) located in Wafangdian, near Ziyang, in the south of the Chinese Province of Shaanxi. Two of the preserved halls are richly decorated with wall paintings dated probably in 1848 AD and representing scenes of the 'Romance of the Three Kingdoms' and Confucian moral tales. They are a rare example of well-preserved mural paintings of high artistic value inside civil buildings. The aims of this paper are the chemical characterization and localization of organic materials used as binders and colorants in the wall paintings. A multi-analytical approach, consisting in the combined use of gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques (GC/MS and Py-GC/MS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), was chosen for these purposes. Proteinaceous materials (animal glue and egg), saccharide material (fruit tree gum) and a siccative oil were identified in different paint layers supplying invaluable information about the painting technique used. Moreover, the analyses of organic dyes allowed identifying indigo and gallic acid in more than one sample adding fundamental information about Chinese artists' techniques in mural paintings, missing from the previous studies. To shed light on the gilding technique, the distribution of the painting materials was achieved by means of synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR micro-FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (SR micro-XRF). The results obtained from the multi-analytical approach enabled us to determine the organic materials both binders and organic colorants used by Chinese artisans, highlighting the high technical level achieved in nineteenth century. The binding media and the organic colorants identified, as well as their distribution, allowed the discussion on the painting technique used by the artists of the Qing dynasty giving information for the first time about the decoration of Chinese civil buildings.
机译:北武生会馆(“北五会议厅”)是一座清朝建筑群,建于清朝(公元1636-1912年),位于中国陕西省南部紫阳附近的瓦房店。其中两个保存完好的大厅装饰有丰富的壁画,大概可追溯到公元1848年,代表了“三个王国的浪漫”和儒家道德故事的场景。它们是民用建筑中保存完好的具有很高艺术价值的壁画的罕见例子。本文的目的是对壁画中用作粘合剂和着色剂的有机材料进行化学表征和定位。为此,选择了多种分析方法,包括气相色谱质谱技术(GC / MS和Py-GC / MS)和带有二极管阵列检测器的高压液相色谱法(HPLC-DAD)的组合使用。蛋白质材料(动物胶和鸡蛋),糖类材料(果树胶)和干燥剂油在不同的涂料层中被鉴定出来,提供了有关所用涂料技术的宝贵信息。此外,对有机染料的分析可以在多个样品中鉴定出靛蓝和没食子酸,从而增加了有关中国艺术家壁画技术的基本信息,而先前的研究却没有这些信息。为了阐明镀金技术,借助同步辐射傅立叶变换红外光谱(SR micro-FTIR)和X射线荧光(SR micro-XRF)实现了涂料的分布。通过多分析方法获得的结果使我们能够确定中国工匠使用的粘合剂和有机着色剂的有机材料,突显了19世纪取得的高技术水平。所识别的粘合剂和有机着色剂及其分布情况,使人们对清代画家所使用的绘画技术进行了讨论,从而首次获得了有关中国民用建筑装饰的信息。

著录项

  • 来源
    《Applied Physics》 |2015年第3期|879-889|共11页
  • 作者单位

    Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industrial, Universita di Pisa, 13, Via Giuseppe Moruzzi, 56124 Pisa, Italy;

    Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industrial, Universita di Pisa, 13, Via Giuseppe Moruzzi, 56124 Pisa, Italy;

    Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industrial, Universita di Pisa, 13, Via Giuseppe Moruzzi, 56124 Pisa, Italy;

    Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industrial, Universita di Pisa, 13, Via Giuseppe Moruzzi, 56124 Pisa, Italy;

    Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Restoration, Oettingenstrasse 15, 80538 Munich, Germany;

    European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 71, Av. Des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble, France;

    European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 71, Av. Des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble, France,LAMS (Laboratoire d'Archeologie Moleculaire et Structurale) UMR-8220, 4, Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France;

    Shaanxi Provincial Research Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 35, Keji Lu, Xi'an 710075, China;

    Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industrial, Universita di Pisa, 13, Via Giuseppe Moruzzi, 56124 Pisa, Italy;

  • 收录信息 美国《科学引文索引》(SCI);美国《工程索引》(EI);美国《生物学医学文摘》(MEDLINE);
  • 原文格式 PDF
  • 正文语种 eng
  • 中图分类
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