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Survey of subjective 'God encounter experiences': Comparisons among naturally occurring experiences and those occasioned by the classic psychedelics psilocybin, LSD, ayahuasca, or DMT

机译:主观“上帝遭遇经历”的调查:自然发​​生的经历与经典迷幻的psilocybin,LSD,ayahuasca或DMT所经历的经历之间的比较

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摘要

Naturally occurring and psychedelic drug–occasioned experiences interpreted as personal encounters with God are well described but have not been systematically compared. In this study, five groups of individuals participated in an online survey with detailed questions characterizing the subjective phenomena, interpretation, and persisting changes attributed to their single most memorable God encounter experience (n = 809 Non-Drug, 1184 psilocybin, 1251 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 435 ayahuasca, and 606 N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)). Analyses of differences in experiences were adjusted statistically for demographic differences between groups. The Non-Drug Group was most likely to choose "God" as the best descriptor of that which was encountered while the psychedelic groups were most likely to choose "Ultimate Reality." Although there were some other differences between non-drug and the combined psychedelic group, as well as between the four psychedelic groups, the similarities among these groups were most striking. Most participants reported vivid memories of the encounter experience, which frequently involved communication with something having the attributes of being conscious, benevolent, intelligent, sacred, eternal, and all-knowing. The encounter experience fulfilled a priori criteria for being a complete mystical experience in approximately half of the participants. More than two-thirds of those who identified as atheist before the experience no longer identified as atheist afterwards. These experiences were rated as among the most personally meaningful and spiritually significant lifetime experiences, with moderate to strong persisting positive changes in life satisfaction, purpose, and meaning attributed to these experiences. Among the four groups of psychedelic users, the psilocybin and LSD groups were most similar and the ayahuasca group tended to have the highest rates of endorsing positive features and enduring consequences of the experience. Future exploration of predisposing factors and phenomenological and neural correlates of such experiences may provide new insights into religious and spiritual beliefs that have been integral to shaping human culture since time immemorial.
机译:很好地描述了自然发生的和迷幻药性的经历,这些经历被解释为与神的个人相遇,但没有系统地进行比较。在这项研究中,五组人参加了一项在线调查,其中有详细的问题,这些问题描述了主观现象,解释和持续变化,这些变化归因于他们最难忘的一次上帝遭遇经历(n = 809 Non-Drug,1184 psilocybin,1251麦角二酸二乙酰胺) (LSD),435 ayahuasca和606 N,N-二甲基色胺(DMT))。对经验差异的分析进行了统计学调整,以适应两组之间的人口统计学差异。非毒品小组最有可能选择“上帝”作为遇到的最好的描述,而迷幻小组最有可能选择“终极现实”。尽管在非毒品和迷幻药组合之间以及在四个迷幻药组之间还有其他差异,但这些组之间的相似性最为明显。大多数参与者报告了对遭遇经历的生动记忆,这些经历经常涉及与具有自觉,仁慈,聪明,神圣,永恒和全知的属性的交流。遭遇经历满足了先验条件,在大约一半的参与者中是完整的神秘经历。在经历之前被确定为无神论者的人中,超过三分之二的人在经历之后不再被确定为无神论者。这些经历被认为是最有意义的人生意义上的人生经历,这些经历归因于生活满意度,目标和意义的中度到强烈的持续积极变化。在这四组迷幻药使用者中,psilocybin组和LSD组最相似,而ayahuasca组倾向于最高的认可积极特征和持久性后果的经历。将来对诱发因素以及这些经验的现象学和神经相关性的探索可能会为宗教和精神信仰提供新的见解,而宗教和精神信仰自远古时代以来就一直在塑造人类文化中不可或缺。

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