When music flows. State and trait in musical performance composition and listening: a systematic review




It is not unusual to experience a sense of total absorption, concentration, action-awareness, distortion of time and intrinsic enjoyment during an activity that involves music. Indeed, it is noted that there is a special relationship between these two aspects (i.e., music and flow experience). In order to deeply explore flow in the musical domain, it is crucial to consider the complexity of the flow experience—both as a “state” and as a “trait.” Secondly, since music is a multifaceted domain, it is necessary to concentrate on specific music settings, such as (i) musical composition; (ii) listening; and (iii) musical performance. To address these issues, the current review aims to outline flow experience as a “trait” and as a “state” in the three above-mentioned musical domains. Clear and useful guidelines to distinguish between flow as a “state” and as a “trait” are provided by literature concerning flow assessment. For this purpose, three aspects of the selected studies are discussed and analyzed: (i) the characteristics of the flow assessments used; (ii) the experimental design; (iii) the results; and (iv) the interrelations between the three domains. Results showed that the dispositional approach is predominant in the above-mentioned settings, mainly regarding music performance. Several aspects concerning musical contexts still need to be deeply analyzed. Future challenges could include the role of a group level of analysis, overcoming a frequency approach toward dispositional flow, and integrating both state and dispositional flow perspectives in order to deepen comprehension of how flow takes place in musical contexts. Finally, to explain the complex relationship between these two phenomena, we suggest that music and flow could be seen as an emergent embodied system.
机译:在涉及音乐的活动中,经历一种全神贯注,专注,行动意识,时间扭曲和内在享受的感觉并不少见。确实,要注意的是,这两个方面(即,音乐和流动体验)之间存在特殊的关系。为了深入探究音乐领域的流,至关重要的是要考虑流体验的复杂性-既是“状态”又是“特征”。其次,由于音乐是一个多方面的领域,因此有必要集中精力于特定的音乐设置,例如(i)音乐创作; (ii)聆听; (iii)音乐表演。为了解决这些问题,本综述旨在概述流动体验,作为上述三个音乐领域中的“特质”和“状态”。关于流量评估的文献提供了清晰而有用的指导原则,以区分流量是“状态”还是“特征”。为此目的,对选定研究的三个方面进行了讨论和分析:(i)所用流量评估的特征; (ii)实验设计; (iii)结果; (iv)三个领域之间的相互关系。结果表明,在上述设置中,处置方法占主导地位,主要在音乐演奏方面。关于音乐情境的几个方面仍需要深入分析。未来的挑战可能包括小组分析的作用,克服针对性倾向的频率方法,以及整合状态和倾向性流动的观点,以加深对音乐情境中如何发生流动的理解。最后,为了解释这两种现象之间的复杂关系,我们建议将音乐和流动视为新兴的体现系统。



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