Identification of Fungal Communities Associated with the Biodeterioration of Waterlogged Archeological Wood in a Han Dynasty Tomb in China




The Mausoleum of the Dingtao King (termed ‘M2’) is a large-scale huangchang ticou tomb that dates to the Western Han Dynasty (206 B.C.–25 A.D.). It is the highest-ranking Han Dynasty tomb discovered to date. However, biodeterioration on the surface of the tomb M2 is causing severe damage to its wooden materials. The aim of the present study was to give insight into the fungal communities colonized the wooden tomb. For this purpose, seven samples were collected from different sections of the tomb M2 which exhibited obvious biodeterioration in the form of white spots. Microbial structures associated with the white spots were observed with scanning electron microscopy. Fungal community structures were assessed for seven samples via a combination of high-throughput sequencing and culture-dependent techniques. Sequencing analyses identified 114 total genera that belonged to five fungal phyla. Hypochnicium was the most abundant genus across all samples and accounted for 98.61–99.45% of the total community composition. Further, Hypochnicium sp. and Mortierella sp. cultures were successfully isolated from the tomb samples, and were distinguished as Hypochnicium sp. WY-DT1 and Mortierella sp. NK-DT1, respectively. Cultivation-dependent experiments indicated that the dominant member, Hypochnicium sp. WY- DT1, could grow at low temperatures and significantly degraded cellulose and lignin. Thus, our results taken together suggest that this fungal strain must be regarded as a serious threat to the preservation of the wooden tomb M2. The results reported here are useful for informing future contamination mitigation efforts for the tomb M2 as well as other similar cultural artifacts.
机译:定陶王陵(称为“ M2”)是一个大型的黄昌头墓,可追溯至西汉(公元前206年至公元25年)。这是迄今为止发现的最高等级的汉代墓葬。但是,坟墓M2表面的生物退化正在严重破坏其木制材料。本研究的目的是深入了解木质墓葬中的真菌群落。为此,从坟墓M2的不同部分收集了七个样品,这些样品以白点的形式表现出明显的生物退化。用扫描电子显微镜观察与白点相关的微生物结构。通过高通量测序和培养相关技术的组合评估了七个样本的真菌群落结构。测序分析确定了114个属,属于五个真菌门。 Hypochnicium是所有样本中最丰富的属,占总群落组成的98.61–99.45%。此外,Hypochnicium sp。和Mortierella sp。从墓葬样本中成功分离出了各种文化,并被称为Hypochnicium sp。 WY-DT1和Mortierella sp。分别为NK-DT1。培养依赖实验表明,主要成员,Hypochnicium sp。 WY-DT1可能在低温下生长,并显着降解纤维素和木质素。因此,我们的研究结果表明,这种真菌菌株必须被视为对木制墓葬M2的保存的严重威胁。此处报告的结果可用于告知该墓M2以及其他类似文化人工制品未来的污染缓解工作。



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