西方环境哲学背景下的佛教生态哲学研究

摘要

Buddhist ecological philosophy research emerges and develops with western environmental philosophy, and it has gone through a process from simple comparison, critical reflection to rational construction. With different ideological basis from western environmental philosophy, Buddhist ecological philosophy has different cognitive approach towards ecological problems. Western environmental philosophy reflects on and transcends modern philosophy with the cognitive approach of“from part to whole”, while Buddhist ecological philosophy needs to follow the approach of“from whole to part”to overcome the limitations of the traditional Buddhism. With a clear understanding of their respective advantages and limitations, the researches of western environmental philosophy and Buddhist ecological philosophy should address the realistic ecological problems and take advantage of each other's strengths through communication. The research themes of Buddhist ecological philosophy should involve theoretical themes of western environmental philosophy, such as values, morals and ontology as well as ideological themes of Buddhism, such as extrication, temperament, dependent origination and Buddhist practice. Environmental philosophy has fallen into many schools in its development. In recent years, a tendency of transcendence and integration emerges in the research of environmental philosophy: seeking for common cognition from different schools. To adapt to the tendency, the research of Buddhist ecological philosophy needs to acquire the research achievement of different schools and establish a philosophical system of ecology with intrinsic consistency, more interpretative and inclusive.%佛教生态哲学研究是伴随西方环境哲学产生、发展的,经历了一个从简单比附,到批判反思,再到理性建构的历程。佛教生态哲学与西方环境哲学从不同的思想基础出发,其对现实生态环境问题的回应有着不同的认识思维路径。西方环境哲学是对现代哲学的反思和超越,走的是“从局部到整体的认识思维路径”。佛教生态哲学要超越传统佛教的局限,则要求走一条“从整体到局部的认识思维路径”。西方环境哲学、佛教生态哲学研究要求立足自身,从回应现实生态环境问题的视角,认识各自的优势与局限,通过交流与对话,实现两者的优势互补与思想融合;确立佛教生态哲学研究主题,一方面应立足佛教自身思想主题,如佛教解脱论、心性论、缘起论、修行观,另一方面应考察西方环境哲学的理论主题,如价值观、德性论、存在论,从两方面的对应点和结合点确立佛教生态哲学研究主题;环境哲学在自身发展过程中形成了众多的思想流派。近年来,环境哲学研究逐渐出现了超越、整合的趋势,如从不同流派的环境哲学中寻求重叠共识。佛教生态哲学研究要适合这种超越、整合趋势,也要求从自身基本理念出发,吸收融合环境哲学不同流派的思想成果,建构具有自身内在一体性、具有更大诠释力和包容力的生态哲学体系。

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