Vehicle-to-grid power system services with electric and plug - in vehicles based on flexibility in unidirectional charging


With proper power scheduling and dynamic pricing,a unidirectional charger can provide benefits and regulation services to the electricity grid,at a level approaching that of bidirectional charging.Power scheduling and schedule flexibility of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles are addressed.The use of electric vehicles(EVs)as flexibility resources and associated unidirectional vehicle-to-grid benefits are investigated.Power can be scheduled with the EV charger in control of charging or via control by a utility or an aggregator.Charging cost functions suitable for charger-and utility-controlled power scheduling are presented.Ancillary service levels possible with unidirectional vehicle-to-grid are quantified using sample charging scenarios from published data.Impacts of various power schedules and vehicle participation as a flexibility resource on electricity locational prices are evaluated.These include benefits to both owners and load-serving entities.Frequency regulation is considered in the context of unidirectional charging.



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