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Behind the frontlines: Identity, competition, and violence in civil wars.

机译:前线的背后:内战中的身份,竞争和暴力。

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摘要

Recent research on violence against civilians during wars has emphasized war-related factors (such as territorial control or the characteristics of armed groups) over political ones (such as ideological polarization or political competition). This dissertation distinguishes between direct and indirect violence and presents a theory of the determinants of these two types of violence for conventional civil wars--where armed groups and civilians face a structure of incentives that broadly differs from that in civil wars fought via irregular warfare. In contrast to much of the literature, the dissertation focuses on political factors as well as those set in motion by war. I generate a set of testable implications for conventional wars and suggest that some also occur in other civil war contexts. Specifically, political variables are hypothesized to have a key explanatory role on the perpetration of violence at the local level, and to affect direct and indirect violence in diverging ways.;To test the observable implications of the theory, I draw on archival and historiographic sources to construct a new dataset of victims of lethal violence, pre-war elections results, and geographical and socioeconomic variables in 2,700 municipalities during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). 1 show that direct violence against civilians goes up where prewar electoral competition between rival political factions approaches parity; this finding is consistent across armed groups and zones. Using data on bombings by Fascist forces on 1,062 municipalities of Catalonia, I also show that lethal indirect violence is negatively and monotonically associated with levels of prewar support for the group.;Additionally, following the first round of violence, war-related factors are found to gain explanatory relevance at the expense of prewar political variables: on the one hand, there is a clear endogenous trend whereby, at the local level, subsequent levels of direct violence perpetrated by one group are highly correlated with initial levels of direct violence perpetrated by the rival group; on the other hand, the likelihood of bombings is positively affected by executions perpetrated by the rival armed group in a municipality during an earlier period. Overall, the findings indicate that understanding the determinants of violence requires a theory that combines the effects of political cleavages and wartime dynamics.;At a secondary level, this dissertation inductively explores the consequences of civil war victimization on the political identities of individuals. Using qualitative and survey data from Spain, I observe that victimization broadly generates rejection toward the identity of the perpetrating group. Identities endogenous to the war seem to be transmitted across generations. In addition, in the long run, victimization is found to have a negative effect on political participation.;This thesis contributes to the understanding of the relationship between political identities and violence during civil conflict: while identities are explanatory of wartime violence, they are also affected by them. In other words, political identities both exogenous and endogenous to wartime dynamics.
机译:最近有关战争期间暴力侵害平民的研究表明,与政治因素(如意识形态两极分化或政治竞争)相比,与战争有关的因素(如领土控制或武装团体的特征)更为重要。这篇论文区分了直接暴力和间接暴力,并提出了常规内战这两种暴力的决定因素的理论-武装团体和平民面临的诱因结构与通过非常规战争进行的内战有很大的不同。与许多文献相反,本文着重于政治因素以及战争引发的政治因素。我对常规战争产生了一系列可验证的含义,并建议其中一些也发生在其他内战环境中。具体而言,假设政治变量对地方暴力的发生具有关键的解释作用,并以不同的方式影响直接和间接暴力。为了检验该理论的可观察性,我借鉴档案和史学资料在西班牙内战(1936-1939)期间,在2700个城市中建立了致命暴力受害者,战前选举结果以及地理和社会经济变量的新数据集。 1表明,在敌对政治派别之间的战前选举竞争趋于平价的情况下,针对平民的直接暴力上升;这一发现在武装团体和地区之间是一致的。我使用法西斯部队在加泰罗尼亚1,062个城市进行的轰炸数据,还表明,致命的间接暴力与战前对该组织的支持程度呈负相关和单调关系;此外,在第一轮暴力之后,发现了与战争有关的因素以牺牲战前政治变量为代价来获得相关的解释性:一方面,存在明显的内生趋势,即,在地方一级,一组人随后发生的直接暴力程度与最初组中的直接暴力发生高度相关竞争对手集团;另一方面,在较早的时期内,敌对武装团体在市内实施的处决对炸弹爆炸的可能性产生了积极影响。总的来说,研究结果表明,了解暴力的决定因素需要一种结合政治分裂和战时动力的理论。在第二层次上,本文归纳地探讨了内战受害对个人政治身份的影响。通过使用西班牙的定性和调查数据,我观察到受害在很大程度上导致了对犯罪集团身份的拒绝。战争内生的身份似乎世代相传。此外,从长远来看,发现受害对政治参与有负面影响。;本论文有助于理解内战期间政治身份与暴力之间的关系:虽然身份是战时暴力的解释,但它们也是受他们影响。换句话说,战时动态既是外生的也是内生的政治身份。

著录项

  • 作者

    Balcells, Laia.;

  • 作者单位

    Yale University.;

  • 授予单位 Yale University.;
  • 学科 History European.;Political Science General.;Sociology Social Structure and Development.
  • 学位 Ph.D.
  • 年度 2010
  • 页码 459 p.
  • 总页数 459
  • 原文格式 PDF
  • 正文语种 eng
  • 中图分类
  • 关键词

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