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【6h】John McCone and the Cuban Missile Crisis August 1-November 3, 1962.

机译约翰·麦康恩(John McCone)和古巴导弹危机,1962年8月1日至11月3日。

【摘要】My thesis focused on John McCone and his role during the Cuban Missile Crisis. On this subject, I will examine John McCone's efforts from May to September 1962 to understand the Soviet buildup in Cuba, pushing President John F. Kennedy for more reconnaissance of the island to aid this effort. During the crisis in October 1962, McCone was one of the main officials responsible for briefing the Kennedy administration on the Soviet efforts in Cuba, where he sided with the members of the cabinet pushing for an air strike and invasion to remove the missiles. Following the crisis, McCone continued to watch the Soviet withdrawal of offensive weapons from Cuba, all the time maintaining his staunch anti-communist views.;John McCone maintained throughout the summer and fall of 1962 that the Soviet Union might place nuclear weapons into Cuba. Part of the reason for this hypothesis was the correct assumption that the placement of missiles into Cuba gave Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev a way to counter the growing American nuclear superiority, protect the communist government on Cuba, and quell fears of the missiles being used against Moscow. McCone made his concerns clear to President Kennedy and other members of the administration before leaving on his honeymoon in late August 1962. During his honeymoon, he called for more reconnaissance flights over Cuba, empowering his deputy, General Marshall Carter, to continue his efforts in Washington. When he returned from his honeymoon, he found gaps in the reconnaissance over western portions of Cuba, and pushed for more reconnaissance flights. On the final of those authorized flights, October 14, the reconnaissance flights found the missiles. McCone's "crusade" during the summer and fall of 1962 was a primary reason for the early discovery of the missiles.;McCone also pushed to remove Castro and his communist government from power. Continuing his crusade against Castro, McCone joined several prominent members of the Executive Committee (EXCOMM) proposing a surgical strike against missile sites followed by an invasion. Despite his push for air strikes even during the blockade, McCone had the job of briefing the administration on daily intelligence reports, keeping Kennedy and his cabinet informed on construction efforts in Cuba. Despite his emotional calls for attacks on Cuba, McCone's efforts to combine the intelligence reports, analysis, and photo interpretation branches during the Crisis allowed the President to have a detailed picture on the withdrawal of the missiles, allowing Kennedy to make informed decisions when dealing with the Soviet government.;Finally, I examined McCone's efforts in November 1962, during the Soviet withdrawal of offensive weapons from Cuba. Kennedy, under intense pressure from Congress and public, relied on the CIA Director and the rest of the EXCOMM for intelligence analysis on whether the missiles had indeed left Cuba. McCone gave the administration the conclusions of the analysts studying the Soviet withdrawal, concluding that the weapons indeed were being dismantled and shipped back to the Soviet Union. Again, McCone had the important role of giving Kennedy the evidence he needed that the missiles were in fact leaving Cuba, bringing an end to the crisis.

【摘要机译】我的论文集中在约翰·麦康恩(John McCone)及其在古巴导弹危机期间的角色。在这个问题上,我将考察约翰·麦康恩(John McCone)在1962年5月至1962年9月间所做的努力,以了解苏联在古巴的集结,并敦促约翰·肯尼迪总统对该岛进行更多的侦察,以协助这一努力。在1962年10月的危机中,麦康恩是向肯尼迪政府介绍苏联在古巴所做的努力的主要官员之一,他在那里与内阁成员并肩作战,要求进行空袭和入侵以清除导弹。危机过后,麦康恩继续注视着苏联从古巴撤出进攻性武器,始终保持坚定的反共主义观点。约翰·麦康恩在1962年整个夏季和秋季一直坚持说苏联可以将核武器放入古巴。这种假设的部分原因是正确的假设,即向古巴放置导弹为苏联总理尼基塔·赫鲁晓夫提供了一种对抗美国日益增长的核优势,保护古巴共产党政府以及平息对用于莫斯科的导弹的恐惧的方法。 。麦康恩在1962年8月下旬度蜜月前向肯尼迪总统和其他政府成员明确表示了关切。在蜜月期间,他呼吁在古巴进行更多的侦察飞行,使他的副手马歇尔·卡特将军得以继续努力。华盛顿。当他从蜜月返回时,他发现古巴西部地区的侦察工作出现空白,并推动进行更多的侦察飞行。在10月14日进行的这些获准飞行的最后阶段,侦察飞行发现了这些导弹。 1962年夏季和秋季,麦康尼(McCone)的“十字军东征”是早期发现这些导弹的主要原因。麦康尼还推动将卡斯特罗(Castro)及其共产政府撤职。麦康(McCone)继续对卡斯特罗(Castro)进行十字军东征,与执行委员会(EXCOMM)的几位杰出成员一起,提议对导弹发射场进行外科手术,随后进行入侵。尽管即使在封锁期间仍要进行空袭,麦考恩还是向政府介绍了每日情报报告,让肯尼迪及其内阁随时了解古巴的建设工作。尽管他强烈呼吁对古巴发动袭击,但麦康在危机期间将情报报告,分析和照片解释部门结合在一起的努力使总统得以详细了解导弹的撤离情况,从而使肯尼迪在处理导弹时能做出明智的决定。最后,在1962年11月,当苏联从古巴撤回进攻性武器时,我考察了麦康恩的努力。肯尼迪在国会和公众的巨大压力下,依靠中央情报局局长和EXCOMM的其他人员对这些导弹是否确实离开古巴进行了情报分析。麦康恩向政府提供了研究苏联撤军的分析员的结论,认为该武器确实已被拆除并运回苏联。麦康恩再次扮演重要的角色,向肯尼迪提供他所需的证据,证明这些导弹实际上正在离开古巴,从而结束了这场危机。

【作者】Heist, Christopher M.;

【作者单位】Liberty University.;

【年(卷),期】2010(),

【年度】2010

【页码】110 p.

【总页数】110

【原文格式】PDF

【正文语种】eng

【中图分类】;

【关键词】

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