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Out of place and thriving: Exploring the effects of underground natural enemies on a global plant invader.

机译:错位而繁荣:探索地下天敌对全球植物入侵者的影响。

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摘要

Introduced plants have followed in the footsteps of humans throughout the globe and are often accompanied by impacts on native ecosystems. The factors that influence the spread of introduced plants may result from novel ecological interactions or evolutionary processes plants undergo outside their native range. Soil microbes can act as natural enemies that keep populations of invasive species in check in their native regions, but also as beneficial symbionts in non-native regions that can fuel invasive spread. In these studies, I tested how soil microbes influence the worldwide success of a highly invasive weed, Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle). I tested whether Centaurea from invasive populations grow more vigorously than from native or non-invasive populations and how soil microbes affect Centaurea performance throughout its global distribution. To address these topics, I conducted greenhouse experiments using seeds and soils collected from populations spanning Centaurea's global distribution. I found no support for the possibility of evolutionary changes that enhance Centaurea's competitiveness, but soil microbes had strong negative effects on plants from all regions. There was a release from natural enemy pressure in some invasive populations, but patterns did not conform to the Enemy Release Hypothesis. Rather, I observed global geographic mosaics of plant-soil microbe interactions that varied in their strength and influence on Centaurea invasions. Negative feedbacks were particularly strong in soils from Argentina and California where Centaurea is spreading most rapidly. I conclude that biogeographic mosaics of species interactions can be important processes that influence the global variability in performance of introduced plants.
机译:引进的植物跟随着全球人类的脚步,并常常伴随着对原生生态系统的影响。影响引入植物传播的因素可能是植物在其本机范围之外经历的新型生态相互作用或进化过程所致。土壤微生物不仅可以作为天敌,还可以控制本地物种的入侵物种,但也可以作为非本地地区的有益共生体,从而助长入侵物种的扩散。在这些研究中,我测试了土壤微生物如何影响高侵入性杂草矢车菊(黄色start声)在全球范围内的成功。我测试了来自入侵种群的矢车菊生长是否比来自本地或非入侵种群的更有力,土壤微生物如何在整个全球分布中影响矢车菊的性能。为了解决这些问题,我进行了温室实验,使用了从Centaurea全球分布的种群中收集的种子和土壤。我发现没有任何支持增强矢车菊竞争力的进化变化的支持,但土壤微生物对所有地区的植物均具有强烈的负面影响。在某些入侵人群中,天敌的压力有所释放,但模式与敌人释放假说不符。相反,我观察到了植物-土壤微生物相互作用的全球地理马赛克,这些马赛克的强度和对矢车菊入侵的影响各不相同。在阿根廷和加利福尼亚,矢车菊传播最快的土壤中,负面反馈尤其强烈。我得出的结论是,物种相互作用的生物地理镶嵌可能是影响引入植物性能的全球变异性的重要过程。

著录项

  • 作者

    Andonian, Krikor G.;

  • 作者单位

    University of California, Santa Cruz.;

  • 授予单位 University of California, Santa Cruz.;
  • 学科 Biology Ecology.Agriculture Plant Pathology.Biology Microbiology.
  • 学位 Ph.D.
  • 年度 2010
  • 页码 81 p.
  • 总页数 81
  • 原文格式 PDF
  • 正文语种 eng
  • 中图分类
  • 关键词

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