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'American Mice Grow Big!': The Syracuse Audiovisual Mission in Iran and the Rise of Documentary Diplomacy


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This dissertation investigates the coterminous emergence of imperial documentary operations and modernization programs in the United States during the 1940s and 1950s. It argues that the period saw a governing investment in documentary format and documentary "value," and that this was a response to the containment strategy of cultural diplomacy at the onset of the Cold War. It's focus is a mixed group of governmental and non-governmental entities. The project makes evident how a group of events and practices involved in foreign diplomacy campaigns of knowledge/intelligence and large scale overseas modernization programs give rise to a discourse of documentary diplomacy. The output of these projects was varied: locally-made rural training films; newsmagazine newsreel; travelogues, and the exported nontheatrical American documentaries. As the dissertation demonstrates, they were influenced by a weaponized ethnographic documentary experience, first formulated in Asia by Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson in the late 1930s. The subsequent rise of governing investment in culture for imperial planning during the 1940s, large scale government experiment with training films during World War II, and governing investment in grassroots audiovisual movement of educational film in the United States all bear the marks of these knowledge/intelligence campaigns. The path to freedom, accordingly, became a bifurcating atomized process that ultimately reconceptualized geopolitically sensitive nation-states as people, as audiences, and eventually as individuals available to be freed from their own "hostile" and "uncooperative" governments on their way toward building bottom-up democratic movements.;Containment campaigns of defending American capitalism against Soviet communism in postcolonial nation-states led to a proliferation of instructional films throughout the world. These missions invested in local filmmaking and established pockets of documentary infrastructure that inevitably played some roles in the making and transformation of national cinemas. As a case study of the emerging discourse of documentary diplomacy, this dissertation also investigates American documentary operations in Iran during the 1940s and 1950s and demonstrates how US-Iranian media projects institutionalized documentary, audiovisual modernization, and media governance in Iran. The Syracuse documentary mission to Iran emerged as among the most important sites of such campaigns. For instance, the first generation of localizing newsmagazine series were made in Iran for Iranians by Iranian crew, using American planning, infrastructure and capital. With this convenient "usage," however, also came subscribing to an ideological package. Media producers and advisors from thirty-five American universities, under Syracuse University's binational contract with American and Iranian governments, participated in this work by 1959.;As this research project demonstrates, documentary diplomacy in this era brings into contact and coherence film and legal discourse, diplomatic policymaking, film practice, and applied social scientific research and intelligence production. In this respect, documentary diplomacy encompasses a set of events that include making documentary, mobile screening, expert viewing, national character research, applied anthropology intelligence work, survey trips, public opinion projects, courses of audiovisual and documentary training, and nation-building projects of central documentary infrastructure and media governance.;This dissertation argues that localized missions of overseas audiovisual training and documentary filmmaking and infrastructure during the 1950s operate through a propaganda facade of apolitical modernization by building on the governing strategy of welfare imperialism via invitation. In some cases, this went to extent of sponsoring anti-leftist localized newsreel campaigns of crushing local journalism and a wide range of objectifying practices. The village how-to films enforced a rapid modernization campaign while audiovisual training facilitated central education and governing. The dissertation also argues that the apolitical facade of the imperial documentary campaign in Iran is an expression of claiming fakery and manipulation in the name of the real.;The project draws from a wealth of declassified archival sources in the United States National Archives at College Park, the Library of Congress, the Archives of Rockefeller and Ford Foundations and other sources including individual memoirs and interviews. The archival sources include memoranda of film scripts, film receipts, correspondence, embassy notes, university and government contract, cultural manuals, immigrant interviews and a documentary bible of administrative film theory and production.;Following the case study of Iran, the dissertation extrapolates that researching the genealogical course of postwar imperial campaigns of documentary diplomacy in the Middle East and Asia can contribute to understanding of the transformation of modernization programs of central education, media cultures and media governance.
机译:本文研究了1940年代和1950年代美国帝国纪录片运作和现代化计划的同时出现。它认为,这一时期出现了对文件格式和文件“价值”的支配性投资,这是对冷战开始时文化外交遏制战略的回应。它的重点是政府和非政府实体的混合团体。该项目表明,与知识/情报和大规模海外现代化计划有关的外国外交运动中涉及的一系列事件和做法如何引起文献外交。这些项目的产出各不相同:本地制作的农村培训影片; newsmagazine newsreel;游记和出口的非戏剧性美国纪录片。正如论文所表明的那样,它们受到了带有武器的民族志记录经验的影响,该经验最早是由玛格丽特·米德(Margaret Mead)和格里高里·贝特森(Gregory Bateson)于1930年代后期在亚洲制定的。随后在1940年代用于帝国计划的文化方面的政府投资增加,第二次世界大战期间政府对培训电影的大规模试验以及对美国教育电影的基层视听运动的政府投资都带有这些知识/智慧的印记。广告活动。因此,通往自由的道路成为一个分叉的原子过程,最终使人们对地缘政治敏感的民族国家重新概念化,成为人民,作为听众,最终成为个人,可以在建设道路上摆脱自己的“敌对”和“不合作”政府自下而上的民主运动。在后殖民民族国家中捍卫美国资本主义反对苏联共产主义的遏制运动导致了教学电影在世界范围内的泛滥。这些任务投资于当地电影制作,并建立了一些纪录片基础设施,这些基础设施不可避免地在国家电影院的制作和转型中发挥了某些作用。作为对新出现的文献外交的案例研究,本论文还研究了1940年代和1950年代美国在伊朗的文献活动,并展示了美伊媒体如何计划伊朗的​​文献化,音像现代化和媒体治理制度化。锡拉丘兹对伊朗的纪录片访问已成为此类运动最重要的地点之一。例如,第一批本地化的新闻杂志系列是伊朗工作人员在伊朗为伊朗人制作的,使用了美国的规划,基础设施和资本。通过这种方便的“用法”,也订阅了一个意识形态软件包。根据锡拉丘兹大学与美国和伊朗政府的双边合同,来自35所美国大学的媒体制作人和顾问在1959年之前参与了这项工作。正如该研究项目所表明的那样,这个时代的文献外交使电影和法律话语之间的联系和连贯性得以实现。 ,外交政策制定,电影实践以及应用的社会科学研究和情报生产。在这方面,纪录片外交包括一系列活动,包括制作纪录片,流动放映,专家观看,民族特征研究,应用人类学情报工作,调查旅行,民意项目,视听和文献培训课程以及国家建设项目本论文认为,1950年代海外视听培训,纪录片制作和基础设施的本地化任务是通过以邀请为基础的福利帝国主义的管理策略,通过宣传政治上的现代化来实现的。在某些情况下,这在一定程度上可以赞助反左派的本地新闻报道运动,以压制当地新闻业和广泛的客观化做法。乡村教学影片实施了快速的现代化运动,而视听培训则促进了中央教育和治理。论文还认为,伊朗帝国纪实宣传活动的非政治化外观是声称以真实名义进行伪造和操纵的表达。该项目取材于大学公园美国国家档案馆的大量解密档案资源。 ,国会图书馆,洛克菲勒和福特基金会的档案馆以及其他资料,包括个人回忆录和访谈。档案资料包括电影脚本的备忘录,电影收据,信件,使馆笔记,大学和政府合同,文化手册,移民采访以及有关行政电影理论和制作的纪录片圣经。,本文推测,研究战后中东和亚洲文献外交帝国运动的谱系过程,可以有助于对中央教育,媒体文化和媒体治理现代化计划的转变的理解。


  • 作者

    Gharabaghi, Hadi Parandeh.;

  • 作者单位

    New York University.;

  • 授予单位 New York University.;
  • 学科 Film studies.;Middle Eastern studies.;History.;American history.
  • 学位 Ph.D.
  • 年度 2018
  • 页码 714 p.
  • 总页数 714
  • 原文格式 PDF
  • 正文语种 eng
  • 中图分类
  • 关键词

  • 入库时间 2022-08-17 11:53:13


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