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Finite element simulation of hydraulic fracturing in unconsolidated sands.

机译:未固结砂土中水力压裂的有限元模拟。

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摘要

Fluid injection into reservoirs, such as waste disposal, steam or water flooding and well testing, is a common practice in oil and gas industry. The injection of large volumes of fluid into an unconsolidated sands reservoir can result in significant changes to the in-situ stress distributions which may lead to the hydraulic fractures initiation and propagation. Hydraulic fracturing can be broadly defined as a process by which a fracture initiates and propagates due to hydraulic loading (i.e., pressure) applied by a fluid inside the fracture[1]. Although hydraulic fracturing in hard rock has been comprehensively studied both experimentally and numerically, some fundamental mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in unconsolidated formation have not been well understood.;Several case studies, which include the field produced water re-injection into deep unconsolidated formation and well testing in oil sands formation, are conducted using the developed finite element models. The bottom-hole-pressures predicted by the developed finite element codes are used to history match the field bottom-hole-pressures. The numerical calculations clearly show that the presented numerical model can capture the physical mechanism of hydraulic fracture initiation and propagation in unconsolidated sand formation and matches the field pressure versus time curve very well.;The hydraulic fracture in unconsolidated sand reservoir can be represented as an anisotropic area of dilation zone or a net of micro-cracks, inside which the formation has low effective stresses and high hydraulic conductivity values. In this thesis, we present a 3D finite element model for simulating the hydraulic fracture initiation and propagation in unconsolidated sands reservoir due to large volumes of fluid injection at high injection rate. To simulate this strong anisotropy in mechanical and hydraulic behaviour induced by fluid injection, a poro-elasto-plastic constitutive model together with a strain-induced anisotropic permeability model are formulated and implemented into a 3D finite element simulator, which is used to match the field injection data.
机译:将流体注入储层中,例如废物处理,蒸汽或注水和试井,是石油和天然气工业的普遍做法。向未固结的砂岩储层中注入大量流体会导致原位应力分布发生重大变化,这可能导致水力压裂的发生和扩散。水力压裂可以广义地定义为裂缝由于裂缝内部的流体施加的水力负荷(即压力)而引发并扩展的过程[1]。尽管已经通过实验和数值研究对硬岩中的水力压裂进行了全面的研究,但对未固结地层中水力压裂的一些基本机理还没有很好地理解。;多个案例研究,包括在现场将水回注到深部未固结地层和井中。使用开发的有限元模型进行油砂地层测试。由开发的有限元代码预测的井底压力用于与油田井底压力进行历史匹配。数值计算清楚地表明,所提出的数值模型能够很好地反映出非固结砂岩中水力压裂的萌生和传播的物理机制,并且很好地匹配了场压与时间的关系曲线。扩张区或微裂纹网的区域,地层内部有效应力低,水力传导率值高。在本文中,我们提出了一个3D有限元模型,用于模拟由于高注水量的大量注水而导致的疏松砂岩油藏中的水力压裂起始和扩展。为了模拟流体注入引起的机械和水力行为中的这种强各向异性,制定了孔隙弹塑性本构模型以及应变诱导的各向异性渗透率模型,并将其实施到3D有限元模拟器中,该模拟器用于匹配场注射数据。

著录项

  • 作者

    Xu, Bin.;

  • 作者单位

    University of Calgary (Canada).;

  • 授予单位 University of Calgary (Canada).;
  • 学科 Engineering, Civil.
  • 学位 Ph.D.
  • 年度 2010
  • 页码 331 p.
  • 总页数 331
  • 原文格式 PDF
  • 正文语种 eng
  • 中图分类 ;
  • 原文服务方 国家工程技术数字图书馆
  • 关键词

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