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Victorian man-making: Shifting trends in Victorian masculinities in 'Jane Eyre', 'Shirley', and 'Middlemarch' (Charlotte Bronte, George Eliot).

机译:维多利亚时代的人造:“简·艾尔”,“雪莉”和“中间派”(夏洛特·勃朗特,乔治·艾略特)中维多利亚时代男性气质的变化趋势。

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摘要

This dissertation considers Charlotte Bronte's and George Eliot's heroes of Jane Eyre, Shirley and Middlemarch in a cultural context of Victorian attitudes toward masculinity. Using a range of Victorian periodicals, I establish a mid-Victorian shift in masculinities in order to study the ways in which Bronte and Eliot reflect and transform these attitudes in novels central to their careers.; In the early years, 1844--1855, periodicals suggested that work would give men control, over themselves and others, in spite of cultural change. Writers advised men to cultivate specific traits for different situations, particularly work and the home. They advised specific responses for specific settings, but neglected to discuss the tensions between advices---either those for one setting or those between different settings, insisting instead that these traits were "natural." In her more optimistic novel, Jane Eyre, Bronte portrays her hero's ability to shed disguises which result from his effort to maintain control over his responses to different situations. If Rochester as well as Jane undergoes an unconventional transformation, the two remain nonetheless firmly bound by different, reciprocal strengths. In Shirley, Bronte envisions a masculinity which adds sympathy to several more traditional forms of masculine authority---involvement in work, detachment from friends, and decisiveness in civic affairs. Bronte's masculine men evince decisive leadership and protective care. Through both heroes, Bronte affirms a straightforward masculinity.; In the later period, 1865--1975, men were again asked to hone a collection of attitudes about themselves in work and in romance. But by this period the simple terms of masculine identification needed frequent qualification. More and more, writers tried to externalize difference in terms of class or gender when the fundamental fear they faced lay within, in the way the male self would not conform to the masculine/feminine binary structure. In Middlemarch using the negative examples of Mr. Casaubon and Dr. Lydgate, Eliot explores the destructive potential of traditional forms of masculine authority. Then, in a progressive pattern between James Chettam, Fred Vincy and William Ladislaw, she emphasizes the extent to which her truly heroic men relinquish tight hold of conventional expressions of manhood and respond more freely to their own instincts, be they so-called "masculine" or "feminine" in nature.; The consistency in Victorian attitudes toward masculine attributes suggests how daring Eliot's masculinities remain. This work, I believe, suggests insights into our current ambivalence about manhood.
机译:本文以维多利亚时代对男性气质的态度为背景,考虑了夏洛特·勃朗特和乔治·艾略特的简·爱尔,雪莉和米德玛奇的英雄。我使用一系列维多利亚时期的期刊,确定了维多利亚时期男子气概的转变,以便研究勃朗特和艾略特在其职业核心小说中反映和转变这些态度的方式。在早年的1844--1855年,期刊建议尽管文化发生变化,但工作仍可以使人们控制自己和他人。作家建议男人在不同情况下,尤其是工作和家庭中,要养成特定的特征。他们建议针对特定环境做出具体回应,但是却忽略了讨论建议之间的紧张关系-无论是针对一种环境还是针对不同环境之间的建议,都坚持认为这些特征是“自然的”。勃朗特在更为乐观的小说《简·爱》中描述了她的英雄摆脱伪装的能力,这是由于他努力控制自己对不同情况的反应而产生的。如果罗切斯特和简一起经历了非常规的转型,那么两者仍然会受到不同互惠力量的牢固束缚。在雪莉(Shirley)中,勃朗特(Bronte)设想了一种阳刚之气,这种阳刚之气对几种更传统的男性权威形式都表示同情-参与工作,与朋友分离,以及对公民事务的果断。勃朗特的男性人物表现出果断的领导能力和防护措施。通过两个英雄,勃朗特肯定了男子气概。在后来的1865--1975年,人们再次被要求在工作和恋爱中磨练出一系列关于自己的态度。但是到了这个时期,男性识别的简单术语需要经常的鉴定。越来越多的作家试图在他们面临的基本恐惧内化阶级或性别方面的差异时,男性的自我将不符合男性/女性的二元结构。在米德尔马奇(Middlemarch),使用卡萨文(Casaubon)先生和利德盖特(Lydgate)博士的负面例子,艾略特(Eliot)探索了传统形式的男性权威的破坏性潜力。然后,以詹姆士·切塔姆(James Chettam),弗雷德·文西(Fred Vincy)和威廉·拉迪斯拉夫(William Ladislaw)之间的渐进模式,她强调了自己真正的英雄人物在多大程度上放弃了传统的男子气概,并更加自由地回应了自己的直觉,即所谓的“男性气概”。 ”或“女性”。维多利亚时代对男性属性的一贯态度表明,艾略特的男性气质依然大胆。我认为,这项工作为我们目前对男子气概的矛盾提供了见识。

著录项

  • 作者单位

    Drew University.;

  • 授予单位 Drew University.;
  • 学科 Literature English.
  • 学位 Ph.D.
  • 年度 1999
  • 页码 158 p.
  • 总页数 158
  • 原文格式 PDF
  • 正文语种 eng
  • 中图分类 I561;
  • 关键词

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