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Cortical Activity during Music Perception; Comparing Musicians and Non-musicians.

机译:音乐感知中的皮层活动;比较音乐家和非音乐家。

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摘要

Musicians devote many hours and extensive effort to their music training, often from an early age. This dissertation research investigates how musical training modifies the way the brain responds to musical events. Using behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measurements, the responses of musicians and non-musicians to irregularities of pitch and rhythm in unfamiliar pairs of melodies based on Western classical rules were recorded. Results indicate that musical training is associated with changes in brain processing involving the detection of both pitch and rhythm irregularities. Behaviorally, musicians detected both types of deviations significantly better than non-musicians. Moreover, musicians did not show ear preference to pitch or rhythm deviations while non-musicians demonstrated left ear advantage to both pitch and rhythm changes. These findings suggest that musicians may engage both hemispheres in response to pitch and rhythm irregularities whereas non-musicians rely preferentially on the right hemisphere for detecting rhythm and pitch deviations. Auditory evoked potentials occurring during the first ∼300 ms (N150/P300 in the case of pitch and N100/P200 in the case of rhythm) were also significantly enhanced in amplitude in musicians compared to non-musicians. ERP findings also provided additional evidence for lateralization effects not seen in the behavioral data.;The behavioral and brain responses to the same musical irregularities of pitch and rhythm were also assessed in a group of patients. This group consisted of subjects with a hearing disorder, auditory neuropathy (AN), affecting both perception of frequency and temporal cues. The sites of lesions were pre-synaptic in one subject, affecting the synapse between inner hair cell and auditory nerve; and postsynaptic in three subjects, affecting the auditory nerve. The pre-synaptic subject had 14 years of music training and the post-synaptic subjects were untrained. In the post-synaptic subjects perception of both pitch and rhythm irregularities were gravely impaired and no auditory cortical potentials were observed to the deviations. In the pre-synaptic case, perception of pitch and rhythm deviations was intact and amplitudes of evoked potentials to deviations were similar to other musicians. Overall, the results demonstrate that processing of pitch and rhythm is affected by musical training in specific ways providing evidence that long-term music training is associated with cortical plasticity and brain lateralization of musical processing.
机译:音乐家通常从很小的时候就花费许多时间和大量的精力来进行音乐训练。本论文研究了音乐训练如何改变大脑对音乐事件的反应方式。使用行为和与事件相关的脑电势(ERP)测量,基于西方古典规则,记录了音乐家和非音乐家对陌生旋律对中音高和节奏不规则的响应。结果表明,音乐训练与涉及到音高和节奏不规律的检测的大脑处理变化有关。从行为上讲,音乐家发现这两种类型的偏差明显优于非音乐家。此外,音乐家没有表现出对音调或节奏偏差的偏爱,而非音乐家则表现出对音调和节奏变化的偏爱。这些发现表明,音乐家可能会因音高和节奏不规则而参与两个半球的活动,而非音乐家则优先依靠右半球来检测节奏和音高的偏差。与非音乐家相比,音乐家在前约300 ms内出现的听觉诱发电位(在音调情况下为N150 / P300,在节奏情况下为N100 / P200)也大大增强了振幅。 ERP的发现也为行为数据中未发现的偏侧效应提供了补充证据。还在一组患者中评估了对相同音高和节律的行为和大脑反应。该组由患有听力障碍,听觉神经病(AN)的受试者组成,这些受试者会影响频率和时间提示的感知。一位受试者的病变部位是突触前的,影响了内毛细胞与听神经之间的突触。和突触后三个科目,影响听神经。突触前受试者接受了14年的音乐训练,而突触后受试者未经训练。在突触后受试者中,对音调和节律不规则的感知都严重受损,并且未观察到听觉皮层电位的偏差。在突触前的情况下,音高和节奏偏差的感知完好无损,诱发电位偏差的幅度与其他音乐家相似。总的来说,结果表明,音调和节奏的处理受音乐训练的特定影响,从而提供证据表明长期音乐训练与音乐处理的皮质可塑性和大脑偏侧化有关。

著录项

  • 作者

    Habibi, Assal.;

  • 作者单位

    University of California, Irvine.;

  • 授予单位 University of California, Irvine.;
  • 学科 Biology Neuroscience.;Psychology Cognitive.
  • 学位 Ph.D.
  • 年度 2011
  • 页码 116 p.
  • 总页数 116
  • 原文格式 PDF
  • 正文语种 eng
  • 中图分类
  • 关键词

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